Prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis and Efficacy of Praziquantel; a Case Study of School Pupils in Oke-Igbo, Ondo State, Nigeria

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O. E. Onifade
M. O. Oniya

Abstract

Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) and remains a major public health problem among school-aged pupils in developing countries. In this study, urine samples were collected along with basic demographic information from 528 pupils from 3 primary schools in Oke-Igbo community of Ondo state, Nigeria. Centrifugation technique was used in the analysis of urine samples for Schistosoma haematobium. Out of the 528 pupils, I05 (19.9%) were infected while 37(7.0%) showed visible haematuria. Positive cases were treated using Praziquantel (40 mg/kg body weight) and a rescreening was done for the treated pupils 3months post-treatment to assess the efficacy of Praziquantel at the standard dose. 7 (6.7%) pupils were still positive after rescreening, with haematuria cases in 4 (3.8%). Age group 6-10 years had the highest frequency in the 3 schools, which is suggestive that they engaged more in water-contact activities. Praziquantel administered in a single oral dose at 40 mg/kg body weight showed 93.3% parasitological cure rate with a Percentage Geomean Egg Count (GMEC) reduction of 77.72%. There was a significant difference in the prevalence rate between age groups and gender (P<0.05). Disease control in Ondo State, is basically centred on chemotherapy hence, the rate of re-infection following parasitological cure is still of major concern. There is need for more political commitment from the government to provide basic amenities such as toilet facilities, and pipe borne water to rural areas other than the usual chemotherapy if elimination is to be achieved.

Keywords:
Schistosomiasis, praziquantel, efficacy, prevalence, haematuria, control

Article Details

How to Cite
E. Onifade, O., & O. Oniya, M. (2018). Prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis and Efficacy of Praziquantel; a Case Study of School Pupils in Oke-Igbo, Ondo State, Nigeria. South Asian Journal of Parasitology, 1(1), 1-10. Retrieved from https://journalsajp.com/index.php/SAJP/article/view/1299
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Original Research Article