Trypanosomiasis in Rodents from Selected Plague Endemic Foci of Tanzania

Adrian E. Materu *

Department of Microbiology, Parasitology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box-3019, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Trypanosomiasis is among the zoonotic diseases that cause threat to public health, rodents are known to be reservoir of various Trypanosomes which are zoonotic. The cross-sectional studies were conducted in selected areas of plague endemic foci in Tanzania, aiming at establishing the prevalence of Trypanosoma sp. infection in rodent species. A total of 105 rodents comprising nine species were captured in different habitats during the study period conducted between March and May 2022. Thin and thick smears were used to detect the Trypanosoma sp. infection in rodent species. The prevalence recorded was 4.8%(5/105), with individual prevalence of Mastomys natalensis 1.9%(2/105), Rattus rattus1.9%(2/105) and Lophuromys kilonzoi 1.0%(1/105). Prevalence of Trypanosoma sp. infection was not differed significantly between host species (P>0.05), host sex (P>0.05), habitat type (P>0.05) and wards (P>0.05). The present study has confirmed the presence of Trypanosoma sp. infection in rodents in plague endemic foci of Tanzania, hence raising the public health concern due to their zoonotic potential.

Keywords: Prevalence, Trypanosoma sp., rodents, plague, endemic area, Tanzania


How to Cite

E. Materu, A. (2023). Trypanosomiasis in Rodents from Selected Plague Endemic Foci of Tanzania. South Asian Journal of Parasitology, 6(1), 19–28. Retrieved from https://journalsajp.com/index.php/SAJP/article/view/148

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Phukon M, Borah KR. Species composition of field rodents in rice-vegetable cropping system at upper Brahmaputra valley zone, Assam. Journal of entomology and zoological studies. 2019;7(1):961-969.

Kasso M. Pest rodent species composition, level of damage and mechanism of control in Eastern Ethiopia. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies. 2013;4(3):502-511.

Kingdon J. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego;2015.

Mulungu LS, Makundi HR, Massawe WA, Machangu RS,Mbije NE. Diversity and distribution of rodent and shrew species associated with variations in altitude on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Mammalia. 2008;72(2008):178-185.

Anusha B, Srinivas M, Rao NS. Survey on rodent species composition in high altitude and tribal zone (HAT) of Andhra Pradesh. Journal of entomology and zoological studies.2018;6(6):600-602.

Katakweba AAS. The prevalence of haemoparasites in rodents and shrews trapped from domestic and peridomestic houses in morogoro municipality, Tanzania. A Hidden Public Health Threat. Tanzania Veterinary Association Proceedings. 2018;36:75-82.

Dahmana H, Granjon L, Diagne C, Davoust B, Fenollar F, Mediannikov O. Rodents as hosts of pathogens and related zoonotic disease risk. Pathogens. 2021;9(3):202.

Matthee S, Horak IG, Beaucournu JC, Durden LA, UeckermannEA, McGeoch MA. Epifaunistic arthropod parasites of the four-striped mouse, Rhabdomyspumilio, in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The Journal of Parasitology. 2007;93(1):47–59.

Soulsby EJL. Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. 7th edition, Lea Febiger. Philadelphia;1982.

Ortiz PA, Garcia HA, Lima L, Da Silva FM, Campaner M, Pereira CL, et al.Diagnosis and genetic analysis of the worldwide distributed Rattus-borne Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) lewisi and its allied species in blood and fleas of rodents. Infection, genetics and evolution. 2017;63:380–390.

Laakkonen J, Smith A, Hildebrandt K, Niemimaa J, Henttonen H. Significant morphological but little molecular differences between Trypanosoma of rodents from Alaska. J. Parasitol. 2005;91:201–203.

Salzer JS, Pinto CM, Grippi DC, Williams-Newkirk AJ, Peterhans JK, Rwego IB, et al. Impact of anthropogenic disturbance on native and invasive trypanosomes of rodents in forested Uganda. EcoHealth. 2016;13:698–707.

Schwan TG, Lopez JE, Safronetz D, Anderson JM, Fischer RJ, Maïga, et al. Fleas and trypanosomes of peridomestic small mammals in sub-Saharan Mali. Parasit. Vectors .2016;9:541.

TangHJ, Lan YG, Wen YZ, Zhang XC, Desquesnes M, Yang TB, et al.Detection of Trypanosoma lewisi from wild rats in Southern China and its genetic diversity based on the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences. Infect. Genet. Evol. 2012 ;12:1046–1051.

Kamaruzaman INA, TingHW, Mokhtar MAM, Yuan YK, Shah AWG, Hamid FF. et al. First case report on molecular detection of Trypanosoma lewisi in an urban rat in Kelantan, Malaysia: An accidental finding. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research. 2021;8(3):435–439.

Laudisoit A, Leirs H, Makundi RH, Krasnov B.Seasonal and habitat dependence of fleas parasitic on small mammals in Tanzania. Integrative Zoology.2009;4:196-212.

Makundi RH, Massawe AW, Borremans B, Laudisoit A, Katakweba A. We are connected: flea-host association networks in the plague outbreak focus in the Rift Valley. Northern Tanzania. Wildlife Research. 2015;42:196-206.

Gao JM, Truc P, Desquesnes M, Vincendeau P, Courtois P, Zhang X, Li SJ, Jittapalapong S, Lun ZR.A preliminary serological tudy of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma lewisi in a Chinese human population. Agric Nat Resour. 2018;52(6):612–616.

Doke PP, Kar A. A fatal case of Trypanosoma lewisi in Maharashtra, India. Ann. Trop. Med. Publ. Hlth. 2011;4:91-95.

Lun ZR, Reid SA, Lai DH, Li FJ.Atypical human trypanosomiasis: a neglected disease or just an unlucky accident?. Trends in parasitology. 2009;25(3):107–108.

Shah I, Ali US, Andankar P, Joshi RR. Trypanosomiasis in an infant from India. J Vector Borne Dis. 2011;48:122–3.

Verma A, Manchanda S, Kumar N, Sharma A, Goel M. Banerjee PS, et al. Case report: Trypanosoma lewisior T. lewisi-like infection in a 37-day-old Indian infant. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2011; 85(2):221–4

Gholipoury M, Rezai HR, Namroodi S, Arab KF. Zoonotic and Non-zoonotic Parasites of Wild Rodents in Turkman Sahra, Northeastern Iran. Iranian Journal of Parasitology. 2016;11(3): 350–357.

KatakwebaAA, Mulungu LS, Eiseb SJ, Mahlaba TAA, Makundi RH, Massawe A W, et al. Prevalence of haemoparasites, leptospires and coccobacilli with potential for human infection in the blood of rodents and shrews from selected localities in Tanzania, Namibia and Swaziland. African Zoology. 2013;47(1):119-127.

Katakweba AAS, Kipanyula MJ, Durnez L, Mgode GF, Mhamphi G, Luziga C, et al. Rodents and Shrews as Vectors of Zoonotic Spirochetes and Trypanosomes in Tanzania. Tanzania Veterinary Journal.2013;28(1);14-19.

Samiji AM,KatakwebaAS, Phiri EC. Trypanosomes Infection in Rodents and their Zoonotic Potential from Ruaha Ward in Kilosa District, Tanzania. Proceedings of the 2nd SUA Scientific Conference held at SUA from 25th to 26th. 2021;126-133.

Ziwa MH, Matee MI, Hang’ombe BM, Lyamuya EF,Kilonzo BS. Plague in Tanzania: An overview. Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2013;15(4):1-8

Kilonzo BS, Mbise TJ, Mwalimu DC,Kindamba L. Observation on the endemicity of plague in Karatu and Ngorongoro, northern Tanzania. Tanzania Health research Bulletin. 2006;8(1).

Hendrix CM, Robinson ED. Diagnostic parasitology for veterinary technicians.4th Edition Elsevier; 2012.

Bush AO, Lafferty KD, Lotz JM,Shostak AW. Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. J Parasitol.1997;83:575–583.

Haule M, Lyamuya EF, Matee MI, Kilonzo BS,Hang’ombe BN. Factors associated with flea infestation among the different rodent species in Mbulu and Karatu districts, northern Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research.2013;15 (3).

Kilonzo BS, Mhina J, Sabuni C,Mgode G. The role of rodents and small carnivores in plague endemicity in Tanzania. Belgian Journal of Zoology. 2005;135:119-125.

Laudisoit A, Leirs H, Makundi RH, Van Dongen S, Davis S, Neerinckx, et al. Plague and the human flea, Tanzania. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13: 687-693.

Michelle G, Chris R, Dickman C, Warren G. Use of habitat by the blackrat (Rattus rattus) at North Head, New South Wales: An observational andexperimental study. Austral Ecology. 2000;25:375–385.

Pryde M, Dilks P, Fraser I. The home range of ship rats (Rattus rattus) in beech forest in the Eglinton Valley, Fiordland, New Zealand: A pilot study. New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 2005;32(3):139–142.

Dahesh AM, Mikhail WM. Surveillance of Trypanosoma spp. of rodents and studies in their transmission probability by fleas in some rural Egyptian areas. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2016;46 (1):157-166.

Linardi PM, Botelho JR. Prevalence of Trypanosoma lewisi in Rattus norvegicus fromBelo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz Rio De Jenero. 2002:97(3)411-414.

Herrera L, Urdaneta-Morales S. Synanthropicrodent reservoirs of Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi in the valley of Caracas,Venezuela. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. São Paulo.1997;39: 279 -282.

De Carnieri I, Castellino S. Trypanosoma lewisi in un allevamento lombardo di rattialbini. Parasitol. 1964 ;6:95-99.

Thompson CK, Godfrey SS, Thompson RC. Trypanosomes of australianmammals: A review. Int. J. Parasitol. Parasites Wildl. 2014;3:57–66.

Votýpka J, Stříbrná E, Modrý D, Bryja J, Bryjová A, Lukeš J. Unexpectedly high diversity of trypanosomes in small sub-Saharan mammals. International journal for parasitology. 2022;52(10):647–658.

Matthee S, McGeoch MA, Krasnov BR. Parasite-specific variation and the extent of male-biased parasitism; An example with a South African rodent and ectoparasitic arthropods. Parasitology. 2010;137:651–660.

Fagir DM, Horak IG, Ueckermann EA, Bennett NC, Heike H. Ectoparasite diversity in the eastern rock sengis (Elephantulus myurus): the effect of seasonality and host sex. African Zoology. 2015;50(2):109-117.

Krasnov BR, Shenbrot GR, Kholkhlova IS, Stanko M, Morand S, Mouillot D. Assembly rules of ectoparasite communities across scales: combining patterns of abiotic factors, host composition, geographica space, phylogeny and traits. Ecography. 2015;38:184-197.

Postawa T, Nagy Z. Variation of parasitism patterns in bats during hibernation: the effect of host species, resources, health status, and hibernation period. Parasitol Res. 2016;115:3767–3778.