Incidence of Intestinal Parasites among School-aged Children: A Case Study of Nnarambia, Ahiazu Mbaise Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria

O. A. Okeke *

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

A. C. Ezirike

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

N. P. Udeh

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

C. C. Nwadike

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

C. A. Imakwu

Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

I. O. Nnatuanya

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

C. C. Egwuagu

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

P. I. Afoemezie

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

C. J. Okeke

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

N. C. Okafor

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

C. Obudulu

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Aims: The aim was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among children in Nnarambia community, Imo State, Nigeria. 

Study Design:   This study is a cross-sectional, community-based, descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Umunnachi and Amaokwe Nnarambia, Ahiazu Mbaise L.G.A of Imo State, Nigeria. The laboratory investigations and analysis were done in the Zoology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, between April and September 2021.

Methodology: A total of two hundred and fifty (250) children from the two villages were randomly sampled for the study with an age range from 2-15 years. Stool samplings were collected and analyzed microscopically using standard procedures.

Results: From the 250 pupils examined, 118(47.20%) were males and 132(52.80%) were females. The result revealed an overall prevalence of 19(7.60%), faecal samples of 11 males (9.32%) and 8 females (6.06) were positive for intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasites detected include: Ascaris lumbricoides 6(2.40%), Entamoeba histolytica 5(2.00%), Hookworms 6(2.40%) and Trichiuris trichiura 2(0.80%). The infection rate was higher among children aged 2-7yrs 11(13.92%) and least among children aged 10-14yrs 2(3.03%).  

Conclusion: A low incidence of intestinal helminth infestations among school-aged children was observed in Nnarambia, but an improved routine de-worming among children should be maintained to sustain the low infection rate observed.

Keywords: Intestinal parasites, Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hookworms, Trichiuris trichiura, children


How to Cite

Okeke, O. A., Ezirike , A. C., Udeh , N. P., Nwadike , C. C., Imakwu , C. A., Nnatuanya , I. O., Egwuagu , C. C., Afoemezie , P. I., Okeke , C. J., Okafor , N. C., & Obudulu , C. (2023). Incidence of Intestinal Parasites among School-aged Children: A Case Study of Nnarambia, Ahiazu Mbaise Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. South Asian Journal of Parasitology, 6(1), 34–43. Retrieved from https://journalsajp.com/index.php/SAJP/article/view/150

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention. About Parasite; 2022. Available:https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/about.html

Ayele A, Tegegne Y, Derso A, Eshetu T, Zeleke AJ. Prevalence and associated factors of intestinal helminths among kindergarten children in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Paediatric Health, Medicine and Therapeutics. 2021;12:35–41. Available:https://doi.org/10.2147/PHMT.S290265

Ihejirika OC, Nwaorgu OC, Ebirim CI, Nwokeji CM. Effects of intestinal parasitic infections on nutritional status of primary children in Imo State Nigeria. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2019;33:34. Available:https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2019.33.34.17099

Degarege A, Erko B, Negash Y, Animut A. Intestinal helminth infection, anemia, undernutrition and academic performance among school children in North Western Ethiopia. Microorganisms. 2022;10(7): 1353.

Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10071353

WHO. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections; 2023. Available:https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/soil-transmitted-helminth-infections

Janice NV, Vincente BY, Florencia CG. Determination of soil-transmitted helminth infection and its association with haemoglobin levels among Aeta children of Atutubo village in Planas. Philippine Science Letters. 2014;7(1):73-78.

Daryani A, Hossseini-Teshnizi S, Hosseini SA, Ahmadpour E, Sarvi S, Amouei A, Sharif M, Intestinal parasitic infection in Iranian preschool and school children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Tropical. 2017;169:69-83.

Aribordor OB, Ekwunife CA, Sam-Wobo OS, Aribodor DN. Risk factors and socio-demographic determinants of intestinal helminthiasis among children in schools that implemented the home-grown school feeding program in Ekwulobia, Anambra State, Southeast Nigeria. International Journal of Translational Medical Research and Public Health. 2018;2(1):1-10.

Aniwada EC, Uleanya ND, Igbokwe LN, Onwasigwe C. Soil transmitted helminths; prevalence, perception and determinants among primary school children in Rural Enugu State, Nigeria. International Journal of Tropical Diseases and Health. 2016;15:1–12. DOI: 10.9734/IJTDH/2016/24501.

Available:www.sciencedomain.org

Fauziah N, Aviani JK, Agrianfanny YN, Fatimah SN. Intestinal parasitic infection and nutritional status in children under five years old: A systematic review. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases. 2022; 7:371.

Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/ tropicalmed7110371

Umeh C, Mbanugo J, Ezeugoigwe N. Prevalence of Intestinal helminthes parasite in stools of nursery and primary school pupils in Uga, Anambra State, Nigeria. Sky Journal of Microbiology Research. 2015;3(1):6-10.

Achi EC, Njoku OO, Nnachi AU, Efunshile AM, Mbah JO, Aghanya IN, Nnemelu PO. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among under five children in Abakaliki Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research. 2017;4(4):218-222.

Tyoalumun Abubakar S, Christopher N. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and their association with nutritional status of rural and urban pre-school children in Benue State, Nigeria. International Journal of MCH and AIDS. 2016;5(2):146-152.

World Health Organization. Soil-transmitted helminth infections. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.

Available:http://www.who.int/mediacenter/factsheets/fs366/en/

Ito EE, Egwunyega AO. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Aviara community: An observation from primary school children in Nigeria. International Medical Journal. 2017;24(2):205-208.

Raj E, Calvo-Urbano B, Heffernan C. Systematic review to evaluate a potential association between helminth infection and physical stunting in children. Parasites Vectors. 2022;15:135.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-022-05235-5

Ohiolei JA, Isaac C, Omorodion OA. A review of soil transmitted helminthiasis in Nigeria. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2017;7(12):841-848.

Weather-head JE, Hotez PJ, Mejia R. The global state of helminth control and elimination in children. Paediatric clinics of North America. 2017;64(4):867. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2017.03.005

Antonio Montresor, Pauline Mwinzi, Amadou Garba. Reduction in DALYs lost due to soil-transmitted helminthiases and schistosomiasis from 2000 to 2019 is parallel to the increase in coverage of the global control programmes; 2022. Available:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0010575

Owaka E, Njoku O, Uhuo C, Odikamnoro O. Survey of intestinal helminth infection amongst school children in rural communities of Ebonyi State Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2016;6(5):76-85.

Karshima SN. Prevalence and distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Nigerian children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Infectious Diseases of Poverty. 2018;7:69.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-018-0451-2

Salawu SA, Ughele VA. Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths among school age children in Ife East Local Government Area, Osun State, Nigeria. FUTA Journal of Research in Science. 2015;1:139-151.

Emeka LI. Prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection among school children in rural and semi urban communities in Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Dental Medicine Science. 2013;6:61-66.

Ojurongbe O, Oyesiji KF, Ojo JA, Odewale G, Adefioye OA, Olowe AO. Soil transmitted helminth infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife Southwest, Nigeria: A cross-sectional study. International Research Journal of Medical Science. 2014;2(1):6-10.

World Health Organization. World health statistics 2012. World Health Organization; 2012.

Available:https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/44844

Awasthi S, Pet R, Read S, Richards SM, Pande V, Bundy D. Population de-worming every 6 months with albendazole in 1 million pre-school children in north India: DEVTA, a cluster-randomised trial. Lancet. 2013;381(9876):1478-1486.

Available:www.worldbank.org/hnpSchoolDe-wormingtheWorldBankHealth-Nutrition-Population web

Maayan N, Donegan S, Chaplin M, Garner P. Public health deworming programmes for soil‐transmitted helminths in children living in endemic areas. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2019(9).

Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000371.pub7

Ahiazu Mbaise. In Wikipedia; 2023. Available:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahiazu_Mbaise

Yamane T. Statistics: An introductory analysis. 3rd Edition, Harper and Row, New York; 1973.

Cheesbrough. Intestinal Nematodes: In District Laboratory Practices in Tropical Countries, Part 1 (Low Price edition). Cambridge University Press: New York. 2006:182-215.

Ekwunife CA, Uzoma EM, Nwaorgu OC, Ozumba NA, Aribodor DN, Ezeunala MN. The role of date palm fruits (Phoenix dactylifers) in the transmission of geohelminths in Nigeria. The Bioscientists. 2013;1(1):1-5.

Abe EM, Echeta OC, Ombugadu A, Ajah L, Aimankhu PO, Oluwole AS. Helminthiasis among school-age children and hygiene conditions of selected schools in Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2019; 4(3):112. Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4030112

Pullan RL, Gething PW, Smith JL, Mwandawiro CS, Sturrock HJW, Gitonga CW, Hay SI, Brooker S. Spatial modelling of soil transmitted helminth infections in Kenya: A disease control planning tool. Plos Neglected. Tropical. Disease. 2011;5:e958. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000958

Chammartin F, Scholte RGC, Malone JB, Bavia ME, Nieto P, Utzinger J, Vounatsou P. Modelling the geographical distribution of soil transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia. Parasites Vectors. 2013;3(6):152.

Lai YS, Zhou XN, Utzinger J, Vounatsou P. Bayesian geostatistical modelling of soil-transmitted helminth survey data in the People’s Republic of China. Parasites Vectors. 2013;6:359. DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-359

Schule SA, Clowes P, Kroidl I, Kowuor DO, Nsojo A, Mangu C, Riess H, Geldmacher C, Laubender RP, Mhina S, et al. Ascaris lumbricoides infection and It’s relation to environmental factors in the Mbeya region of Tanzania, a cross-sectional, population-based study. Plos One. 2014;9:e92032. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092032

Nduka FO, Nwaugo VO, Nwachukwu NC. Intestinal parasite infections in Ishiagu, Abia State. Animal Research. International. 2006;505–507.

Galgamuwa LS, Iddawela D, Dharmaratne SD. Prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides infections in relation to under nutrition among children in a tea plantation community, Sri Lanka: A cross-sectional study. BMC Paediatric. 2018;18(1):13.

De Silva NR, Brooker S, Hotez PJ, Montresor A, Engels D, Savioli L. Soil transmitted helminth infections: Updating the global picture. Trends in Parasitology. 2003;19(12):547–551.

Funso-Aina OI, Chineke HN, Adogu PO. A review of prevalence and pattern of intestinal parasites in Nigeria (2006-2015). European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences. 2020;2(1).

Available:https://doi.org/10.24018/ejmed.2020.2.1.139.

Manir N, Umar LM, Abduhadi BJ. Survey on prevalence of intestinal parasites associated with some primary school aged children in Dutsinma Area, Katsina State, Nigeria. MOJ Biol Med. 2017;2(2):197–201.

DOI: 10.15406/mojbm.2017.02.00044

Gbonhinbor J, Abah AE, Awi – Waadu G. Prevalence of intestinal parasite infection and associated risk factors among primary school children aged (5 – 15 years) in Southern Nigeria. Internal Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2022;9(3):e123721.

Gyang VP, et al. Intestinal parasitic infections: Current status and associated risk factors among school aged children in an archetypal African urban slum in Nigeria. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi. 2019;52(1):106–113. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2016.09.005.

Yeshitila YG, Zewde H, Mekene T, Manilal A, Lakew S, Teshome A. Prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal parasites among schoolchildren from two primary schools in Rama Town, Northern Ethiopia. The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology. 2020:5750891. Available:https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/5750891

Tegen D, Damtie D. Prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection among primary school children in Dera district, Northwest Ethiopia. The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology; 2021. Available:https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5517564.

Liao W, Fu J, Kao Y, Lee L, Chen C, Chuang W, Naito T, Chou M, Huang C, Bonfim I, Fan K. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school children in capital areas of the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, West Africa. African Health Sciences, 2016;16(3):690-697. Available:https://doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v16i3.8

Ulhaqa Z, Khanb W, Khana MF, Kabirc M, Ujjand AA, Ullaha W, Masoode Z, Khana S, De los Ríos Escalantef PG. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases in school children of rural areas of district Lower Dir, Pakistan. Brazilian Journal of Biology. 2022;82:e243150. Available:https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.243150

Abuobieda Sirelkhatem Mohammed Elameen, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad, Mohammed Baha Eldin Ahmed. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among primary schools aged children in Ombda locality. Saudi Journal of Biomedical Research. 2019;4(12):412-415.

Hilary H. Males have higher parasite burdens than females. Can they cope? 2017.

Available:https://blogs.biomedcentral.com/bugbitten/2017/05/05/males-higher-parasite-burdens-females-can-cope/

Bertoncello C, Amoruso I, Moscardino U, Fonzo M, Maharjan M, Buja A, Baldo V, Cocchio S, Baldovin T. Sex-Biased Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Gender Inequality in Rural Nepal. International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID: Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases. 2021;109:148–154.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.06.041

Ahmed HM, Ali G. Intestinal parasitic infection among school children in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt: A cross-sectional study. Egyptian Paediatric Association Gazette. 2022;70(1):1-8. Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s43054-021-00093-9

Pukuma Micah Sale, Thadawus Daniel, Augustine Linda Midala Soil transmitted helminths among school aged children in Hong local government area of Adamawa state, Nigeria. Animal Research International. 2022;19(1):4318–4323. Available:www.zoo-unn.org

Adewale B, Rahaman O, Aina O, Sulyman MA. Schistosoma mansoni and Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH) Infections among pregnant women attending primary health care facilities in Lagos Mainland, Nigeria. Journal of Bioscientist Medicines. 2006;6(12):64-70.

Ejinaka OR, Obeta MU, Agbalaka PI, Ajik H. Current review of diagnosis and control of urogenital schistosomiasis. The Diagnostics. 2019;3(1):40-57.

Agbalaka PI, Ejinaka OR, Yakubu DP, Obeta UM, Jwanse RI, Dawet A. Prevalence of parasites of public health significance in vegetables sold in Jos Metropolis, Plateau State, Nigeria. Journal of Public Health. 2019;7(2):48-57.

Agbalaka PI, Yakubu D, Ejinaka OR, Obeta MU, Dawet A. Prevalence of parasites of public health significance in vegetables sold in Jos Metropolis, Plateau State, Nigeria. Scientific Paper Presentation at 54th AMLSN Conference; Book of Abstract Rock City; 2018.

Edelduok Ekaette, Eyo Joseph, Ekpe Emem. Soil-transmitted helminth infections in relation to the knowledge and practice of preventive measures among school children in rural communities in South-Eastern Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2013;5:33-37. DOI: 10.9790/3008-0563337

Ziegelbauer K, Speich B, Mäusezahl D, Bos R, Keiser J, Utzinger J. Effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infection: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Plos Medicine. 2012;9(1).

Available:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001162

Gupta R, Rayamajhee B, Sherchan SP, Rai G, Mukhiya RK, Khanal B, Rai SK. Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and associated risk factors among school children of Saptari district, Nepal: A cross-sectional study. Tropical Medicine and Health. 2020;48. Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s41182-020-00261-4