Epidemiology of Urogenital Schistosomiasis among Primary School Children in Anam Community, Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria

Obijiofor, E.C. *

Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Ngenegbo, U.C.

Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Iwueze, M.O.

Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Onyido, A. E.

Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Okoye, E.P

Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Aribodor, O.B.

Department of Zoology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Aims: The study was aimed at investigating the prevalence, intensity and risk factors associated with urogenital schistosomiasis transmission among primary school children.

Study Design: This study is a cross-sectional, school-based, descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: Central school Umueze Anam, Community primary school Mmiata Anam and Unity primary school Umuoba Anam Otuocha, between April and October 2023.

Methodology: A total of 303 primary school children(4-15years) 150(49.5%) males, 153(50.5%) females were randomly selected for the study from three primary schools. Three hundred and three fresh urine samples were collected and examined for microhaematuria using reagent strips Meditest Combi-9 and examined for S. haematobium egg using sedimentation technique by centrifugation and microscopy. Structured pre-tested questionnaires were used to determine the socio-demographic and  risk factors associated with urogenital schistosomiasis. Prevalence and intensity were calculated. The relationship between each variable and schistosoma prevalence was analyzed using Chi square. Test of statistical significance was set at P-value of 0.05 (95%) confidence interval.

Results: Of the 303 school children 150(49.5%) males and 153(50.5%) females examined microscopically, an overall prevalence of 53(17.5%) urogenital schistosomiasis was observed.  The observed prevalence was higher in males 36(24.0%) than females 17(11.1%), males had the highest mean egg intensity of 28.97 than the females 24.52 per 10ml of urine, though they all had light intensity of infection. School children between 8-11 years old had the highest prevalence of the infection 23(22.5%) followed by those in age group 4-7 years old 17(17.3%). Age group 12-15 years old had the highest mean egg intensity of 26.52 followed by age group 8-11years old with 20.23 per 10ml of urine. When the prevalence associated with risk factors was assessed; with regard to parental occupation, pupils whose parents were fishermen had the highest prevalence of the infection 22(30.1%), followed by those whose parents were farmers 17(17.3%). Mean egg intensity was highest among pupils whose parents were fishermen 28.34 per 10ml of urine. With regard to literacy level, Pupils whose parents had no form of formal education had significantly highest prevalence (39.1%). With regard to source of water for the household, those who source their water from the river statistically had the highest prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis 45(23.7%).

Conclusion: The study revealed that urogenital schistosomiasis affects primary school children in Anam, Anambra State. There is need for more school-based chemotherapy; health education programme and intervention in the form of sinking boreholes and pipe- borne water that will help reduce the risk of urogenital schistosomiasis in Anam community .

Keywords: Urogential schistosomiasis, prevalence, intensity, S. haematobium, schoolchildren, anam-Nigeria, urine samples, water-borne infection


How to Cite

Obijiofor, E.C., Ngenegbo, U.C., Iwueze, M.O., Onyido, A. E., Okoye, E.P, and Aribodor, O.B. 2024. “Epidemiology of Urogenital Schistosomiasis Among Primary School Children in Anam Community, Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria”. South Asian Journal of Parasitology 7 (2):49-61. https://journalsajp.com/index.php/SAJP/article/view/171.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

World Health Organization. Schistosomiasis; 2023. Accessed 20th August 2023. Available: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact- sheets/detail/schistosomiasis.

Nanvya TN, Dakul DA, Mwansat GS. Schistosomiasis in Ndinjor district of Langtang Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. 2011;32(2):209 213.

Balogun JB, Adewale BB, Balogun SU, Lawan AA, Haladu IS, Dogara MM. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Urinary Schistosomiasis among Primary School Pupils in the Jidawa and Zobiya Communities of Jigawa State, Nigeria. Annals of Global Health. 2022;88(1):71. DOI: 10.5334/aogh.3704.

Hotez PJ, Fenwick AS, Savioli L, Molyneux DH, Kumaresan J, Sachs SE, Sachs JD. Rescuing the bottom billion through neglected tropical diseases control. The Lancet. 2014;373(4):1570-1575. DOI: 10.1056/NEJIMra064142.

Raffo AA, Atachi AE. Prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Human and Snail Hosts in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Biological Life Sciences. 2019;1(2): 82-88.

Chikwendu JI, Ngenegbo UC, Obisike VU, Ikpeze OO. Molecular and other diagnostic tools used to compare Schistosoma haematobium infections in pupils before and after praziquantel therapy. Global Scientific Journals. 2022;10(1):170-188.

Standley CJ, Lwambo NJS, Lange CN, Karinki HC, Adriko M, Stothard JR. Performance of circulating cathogenic (CCA) urine-dipsticks for rapid detection of intestinal schistosomiasis in school children from shoreline communities of Lake Victoria. Parasites and Vectors. 2010;3:3- 7.

Kanwai SN, Ndams IS, Kogi E, Abdukadir JS, Gyam ZG, Bechemagbor. cofactors influencing prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection in Sedentary Fulani settlements of Dumbi, Igabi Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Nigeria Scientific World Journal. 2011;6(2):15-19

Santos LL, Santos KJ, Gouveia MJ, Bernardo CJ, Lopes NC, Rinaldi GG, Brindley PJ. Urogenital Schistosomiasis-History, Pathogenesis, and Bladder Cancer. Journal of Clinical 515 Medicine. 2021;10(2):205.

Doenhoff MJ, Cioli D, Utzinger J. Praziquantel mechanism of action, resistance and new derivatives for schistosomiasis. Current opinion on Infectious Diseases. 2008;21(6):659-667.

El-Ridi AF, Tallima HA. Novel therapeutic and prevention approaches for schistosomiasis: review. Journal of Advance Research. 2013;4(2):467-478.

Cheesbrough M. District Laboratory Practical in Tropical Countries. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press; 2019.

Anorue CO, Onyali IO, Iwueze OM. Epidemiological studies on urinogenital schistosomiasis in Ebonyi State. Med Surg Urol. 2021;10(4):245.

Bashir SF, Usman UI, Sani NM, Kawo AH. Prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium among Population aged 1- 25 Years attending Rasheed Shekoni Specialist Hospital, Dutse, Jigawa State-Nigeria. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2016;11(1):20-24.

Iwueze MO, Anakenyi AM, Ezeagwuna DO, Ikpeze OO. Urinary Schistosomiasis diagnosed among children of Omogho in Nigeria. The Diagnostics. 2018;2(1):34-39.

Ekpo UF, Mafiana CF, Akigbe MM. Studies on the Reliability of Self-Reported Blood in Urine. For individual diagnosis of Schistosoma heamatobium infection in Ogun State Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2004;670:185-195.

Opara KN, Udoidung NI, Ukpong IG. Genitourinary schistosomiasis among pre-primary school children in rural community within the Cross-River Basin, Nigeria. Journal of 53 Helminthology. 2007;81:393-394.

Senghor BB, Diaw OT, Doucoure GS, Seye MA, Talla II, Diallo AA. Epidemiological and clinical study of urogenital schistosomiasis in Dakar, Senegal. Journal of Parasitology Research. 2015;8:410.

Abdullahi AS, Emukah EC, Opara KN. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Schistosoma haematobium Infection among School Children in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research. 2017;24(9): 1-9.

Mbata TI, Orji MU, Oguoma VM. High Prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis in a Nigerian 540 Community. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2009;12:2-5.

Ofoezie OO, Christensen AM. Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Nigeria: A Review of the Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Public Health Implications. Journal of Parasitology Research. 2014;33:21-23

Yakubu A, Ahmed M, Muazu A. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among pupils in selected primary schools in Lafia Metropolis, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2014;2(2):491-495. 547

Bello A, Jimoh AO, Shittu SB, Hudu SA. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and associated haemato-proteinuria in Wurno Rural Area of Sokoto State, Nigeria. Orient Journal 550of Medicine. 2014;26(1):3-4. 252.

Musa BJ, Benjamin G, Muhammed T, Baba MM, Thilza IB. Incidence of schistosomiasis in Primary school pupils with particular reference to S. haematobium in Maiduguri. 553 Researcher. 2010;2(3):1-6.

Joseph MB, Gaji B, Muhammad T, Baba MM, Thilza IB. Incidence of schistosomiasis in Primary school pupils with particular reference to S. haematobium in Maiduguri. Researcher. 2010; 2(3):31-36.

Ugochukwu DO, Okolo OO, Osuala FO. Gender and Schistosomiasis Infection in Anambra State, Nigeria. International Journal of Development and Sustainability. 2017;6(7):109-118.

Dawet A, Benjamin CB, Yakubu DB. Prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium among residents of Gwong and Kabong in Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria. International Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2012;7(2):67-73.

Tobin EA, Eze GU, Isah EC, Okojie PW. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among school children in a rural community in South-south Nigeria. West African Journal of Medicine. 2013;32(2):115-20.

Ugbomoiko US, Obiezue RN, Ogunniyi TA, Ofoezie IE. Diagnostic accuracy of different urine dipsticks to detect urinary Schistosomiasis: A comparative study in five endemic communities in Osun and Ogun States, Nigeria. Journal of Helminthology. 2009;83:203–209.

Adie HA, Okon OE, Arong GA, Braide EI, Ekpo UF. Spatial distribution of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria using Geographical Information System and School Based Questionnaire. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2013;16(1):66-117.

Dawaki SK, Al-mekhlafi HM, Ithoi IL, Ibrahim JH, Abdulsalam AM, Ahmed HG, Sady HF, Atoosh WM, Al-areeqi MH, Elyana FN, Nasr NA, Surin JK. Prevalence and risk factors of schistosomiasis among Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. Journal of the São Paulo Institute of Tropical Medicine. 2016;12(58):54.

Ekwunife CA, Okafor FC. Schistosomiasis Infection in Primary Schools in Agulu Town of Anambra State, Nigeria. Animal Research International. 2014;1(3): 203-207.

Ismail M, Metwally A, Farghally A, Bruce J, Tao LF, Bennett JL. characterization of isolates of Schistosoma mansoni from Egyptian villages that tolerate high doses of praziquantel. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2014;55:214-218.

Jimoh OR, Bichi AH. Prevalence and associated factors of urogenital schistosomiasis in Nasarawa state, Nigeria. Journal of Parasitology Research. 2020;20:20-25.

Houmsou RS, Panda SM, Elkanah SO. Cross-sectional study and spatial distribution of schistosomiasis among children in Northeastern Nigeria. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2016;6:477-484.