Epidemiology of Urogenital Schistosomiasis among Primary School Children in Anam Community, Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria

Obijiofor, E.C. *

Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Ngenegbo, U.C.

Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Iwueze, M.O.

Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Onyido, A. E.

Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Okoye, E.P

Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Aribodor, O.B.

Department of Zoology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Aims: The study was aimed at investigating the prevalence, intensity and risk factors associated with urogenital schistosomiasis transmission among primary school children.

Study Design: This study is a cross-sectional, school-based, descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: Central school Umueze Anam, Community primary school Mmiata Anam and Unity primary school Umuoba Anam Otuocha, between April and October 2023.

Methodology: A total of 303 primary school children(4-15years) 150(49.5%) males, 153(50.5%) females were randomly selected for the study from three primary schools. Three hundred and three fresh urine samples were collected and examined for microhaematuria using reagent strips Meditest Combi-9 and examined for S. haematobium egg using sedimentation technique by centrifugation and microscopy. Structured pre-tested questionnaires were used to determine the socio-demographic and  risk factors associated with urogenital schistosomiasis. Prevalence and intensity were calculated. The relationship between each variable and schistosoma prevalence was analyzed using Chi square. Test of statistical significance was set at P-value of 0.05 (95%) confidence interval.

Results: Of the 303 school children 150(49.5%) males and 153(50.5%) females examined microscopically, an overall prevalence of 53(17.5%) urogenital schistosomiasis was observed.  The observed prevalence was higher in males 36(24.0%) than females 17(11.1%), males had the highest mean egg intensity of 28.97 than the females 24.52 per 10ml of urine, though they all had light intensity of infection. School children between 8-11 years old had the highest prevalence of the infection 23(22.5%) followed by those in age group 4-7 years old 17(17.3%). Age group 12-15 years old had the highest mean egg intensity of 26.52 followed by age group 8-11years old with 20.23 per 10ml of urine. When the prevalence associated with risk factors was assessed; with regard to parental occupation, pupils whose parents were fishermen had the highest prevalence of the infection 22(30.1%), followed by those whose parents were farmers 17(17.3%). Mean egg intensity was highest among pupils whose parents were fishermen 28.34 per 10ml of urine. With regard to literacy level, Pupils whose parents had no form of formal education had significantly highest prevalence (39.1%). With regard to source of water for the household, those who source their water from the river statistically had the highest prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis 45(23.7%).

Conclusion: The study revealed that urogenital schistosomiasis affects primary school children in Anam, Anambra State. There is need for more school-based chemotherapy; health education programme and intervention in the form of sinking boreholes and pipe- borne water that will help reduce the risk of urogenital schistosomiasis in Anam community .

Keywords: Urogential schistosomiasis, prevalence, intensity, S. haematobium, schoolchildren, anam-Nigeria, urine samples, water-borne infection

How to Cite

Obijiofor, E.C., Ngenegbo, U.C., Iwueze, M.O., Onyido, A. E., Okoye, E.P, and Aribodor, O.B. 2024. “Epidemiology of Urogenital Schistosomiasis Among Primary School Children in Anam Community, Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria”. South Asian Journal of Parasitology 7 (2):49-61. https://journalsajp.com/index.php/SAJP/article/view/171.


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