Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook on Haematological Parameters of Swiss Albino Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei NK 65

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E. O. Dada
D. Muhammed

Abstract

The incidence of severe anaemia in malaria as a result of Plasmodium infection, has necessitated the need for discovery and development of plant extract that could stimulates the production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis) and boost the immune system to fight the parasite. Acute toxicity of ethanolic leaf extract of Eucalyptus citriodora and effect of the leaf extract on haematological parameters in mice infected with P. berghei NK 65 were assessed. Mice were acclimatized for seven days before the commencement of infection and treatment. Twenty (20) mice were randomized into 5 groups of four mice each for acute toxicity test, and twenty-four (24) mice were randomized into six groups (groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) of four mice each, for haematological analysis. All mice were of body weights between 18-25 g. Mice of all groups were infected with P. berghei, except group 3 (normal control). Groups 4, 5 and 6 were treated with 0.2 mL of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight of extract respectively. Mice in group 2 (positive control) were treated with 0.2 mL of 5 mg/kg body weight of chloroquine. Mice of group 1 (Negative control) were treated with 0.2 mL of normal saline, while mice of group 3 (normal control) were administered with 0.2mL of normal saline for four consecutive days. Standard methods were used to determined acute toxicity and haematological parameters of the mice. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, and the extract was safe and nontoxic to all mice. Haematological analysis revealed an increase in values of packed cell volume, red blood cells, haemoglobin, platelet, lymphocyte, Mean Cell haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Cell Corpuscular Volume (MCV) and Mean Cell haemoglobin (MCH) in mice of groups 4, 5 and 6 (Mice treated with different concentrations of the extract). Mice of group 3 had the highest value, followed by group 2 (chloroquine treated group). Mice of group 1 (negative control) showed lowest values of these parameters and highest WBCs counts. This study revealed the potency of Eucalyptus citriodora as a future herbal candidate that can enhances and boost haematological indices.

Keywords:
Eucalyptus citriodora, Plasmodium berghei, haematology, acute toxicity, albino mice

Article Details

How to Cite
Dada, E. O., & Muhammed, D. (2018). Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook on Haematological Parameters of Swiss Albino Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei NK 65. South Asian Journal of Parasitology, 1(2), 1-8. Retrieved from https://journalsajp.com/index.php/SAJP/article/view/29387
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Original Research Article