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Introduction: Despite many studies that have been done in different parts of Iran, comprehensive information on the epidemiology of Acanthamoeba is not available. Therefore, this review was conducted to collect the reports from studies accompanied in different parts of the country as a systematic study.
Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional studies that surveyed the prevalence and genotype of Acanthamoba in Iran were included. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using STROBE checklist. Heterogeneity of the studies was explored using a Chi-squared test at the 5% significance level. Publication bias was assessed using Begg's and Egger's tests. Stata software version 11 was employed for data analysis. Results were reported using a random effect model with 95% CI.
Results: Out of 2234 articles and 715 abstracts of conferences, finally, 42 articles were selected. Six studies were conducted between 2000-2010 years and 36 studies were conducted between 2011 until 2017. The prevalence rate of Acanthamoeba was 39% from 2000 to 2010 and reached 43% during 2011-2017. Also, the prevalence of contamination in human specimens was 24% and in environmental samples was 45% and 48% in water samples. Reported genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran include T2, T3, T4,T5,T11,T13and T15 which the most common genotype of Acanthamoeba was T4.
Conclusion: The results of this review showed that the prevalence of Acanthamoeba was not only high in various regions of Iran, but also has been increased in various environmental sources in recent years.
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