Prevalence and Determining Factors of Urinary Schistosomiasis among Primary School Pupils in North Central Nigeria

Main Article Content

H. I. Mohammed
I. Yahaya
S. B. Buhari


Aims: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and analyze risk factors for urinary schistosomiasis among primary school pupils in North Central Nigeria.

Study Design: The study was a cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Keffi, Nasarawa State, between March and June 2019.

Methodology: 300 urine samples (100 from each of the 3 selected primary schools) were collected from the pupils and information about them were obtained by structured questionnaires. The eggs of S. haematobium were microscopically detected from the samples using standard filtration technique. Data collected were analyzed using Smith’s Statistical Package (version 2.8, California, USA) and P value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Out of the 300 pupils screened, 36(12.0%) were positive for urinary schistosomiasis. Ahmadu Maikwato primary school had the highest prevalence (61.1%) followed by Nurudeen (27.8%) and Model Science (11.1%) primary schools. In relation to socio-demographics, the rate of the infection was higher among pupils aged ≥16 years (28.6%), males (15.9%), in rural areas (12.9%), from polygamous family (16.7%) and whose parents were farmers (18.8%). Location of the pupils was found to be associated with the rate of the infection (P=0.02). However, all other risk factors considered in this study were not significantly associated with the parasitic infection (P>0.05).

Conclusion: This study indicates the presence of urinary schistosomiasis in Central Nigeria and therefore, intensified control efforts are recommended towards the elimination goal by 2025.

Schistosoma haematobium, hematuria, school-age-children, North Central, Nigeria.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mohammed, H. I., Yahaya, I., & Buhari, S. B. (2020). Prevalence and Determining Factors of Urinary Schistosomiasis among Primary School Pupils in North Central Nigeria. South Asian Journal of Parasitology, 4(3), 38-45. Retrieved from
Original Research Article


Vander-Werf MJ, De Vlas SJ, Brooker S, Looman CW, Nagelkerke NJ, Habbema JD. et al. Quantification of clinical morbidity associated with schistosome infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Acta Tropica. 2003;86:25-139.

Engels D, Chitsulo L, Montresor A, Savioli L. The global epidemiological situation of schistosomiasis and new approaches to control and research. Acta Tropica. 200;82(2):39–146.

Akinboye DO, Ajisebutu JU, Fawole OM, Agbolade OM, Akinboye DO, Amosu AM. et al. Urinary schistosomiasis. Water contact frequency and infertility among secondary school students in Ibadan, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. 2011;32:129–134.

Hotez PJ, Savioli L, Fenwick A. Neglected tropical diseases of the Middle East and North Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control. Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2012;6(2):e1475.

Muhammad AI, Abdullahi K, Bala AY, Shinkafi SA. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among primary school pupils in Wamakko Local Government, Sokoto State. Nigeria Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology. 2019;80:22-27.

Abdulkadir A, Ahmed M, Abubakar BM, Suleiman IE, Yusuf I, Imam IM. et al. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in Nigeria, 1994–2015: Systematic review and meta-analysis. African Journal of Urology. 2017;23(3):228–239.

Babamale OA, Kolawole OH, Abdulganiyu K, Abdulkareem OA, Ugbomoiko US. Urogenital schistosomiasis among School children and the associated risk factors in selected rural communities of Kwara State, Nigeria. Hindawi Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2018;6:e6913918.

World Health Organization. Research priorities for helminth infections: Technical report of the TDR disease reference group on helminth infections. 2012;60–62.

Hottez PJ, Kamath A. Neglected tropical diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: Review of their prevalence, distribution and disease burden. Plos Negleted Tropical Diseases. 2009;3(8):412-421.

Uneke C, Ugwuok-Adibuah S, Nwakpu K, Ngwu B. An assessment of Schistosoma haematobium infection and urinary tract bacterial infection amongst school children in rural Eastern Nigeria. The Internet Journal of Laboratory Medicine. 2010;4:1-6.

Midzi N, Sangweme D, Zinyowera S, Mapingure MP, Brouwer KC, Kumar NJ. et al. Efficacy and Side effects of Praziquantel treatment against Schistosoma haematobium infection among primary School children in Zimbabwe. Journal of Infectious Disease. 2014;13:21-28.

Wang W, Wang I, Liang Y. Susceptibility or resistance of Praziquantel in human schistosomiasis: A review. Parasitology Research. 2012;111:1871-1877.

Ishaleku D, Yako AB, Usman D, Azamu SA. Schistosoma haematobium infections among school children in Keffi town, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Scholarly Journal of Medicine. 2012;2(7):104-107.

Okwori AEJ, Sidi M, Ngwai YB, Obiekezie SO, Makut MD, Chollom SC. et al. Prevalence of schistosomiasis among primary school children in Gadabuke District, Toto Local Government Area, North Central Nigeria. British Microbiology Research Journal. 2014;4(3):255-261.

Ezhim M, Oti V, Goriya K, Zira G, Dlama J. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among primary school children in a Northern Nigerian population. International Journal of Advanced Research. 2015; 3(11):511-519.

Dawaki S, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Ithoi I, Ibrahim J, Abdulsalam AM, Ahmed A. et al. Prevalence and risk factors of schistosomiasis among Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. Journal of the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Sao Paulo. 2016;10:58-54.

World Health Organization. Global health estimates 2016; deaths by cause, age, sex, by country and by region, 2000-2016, Geneva. 2016;80.

Akwa VL. Binbol NL. Samaila KL. Marcus ND. Geographical perspective of Nasarawa State, Onaive Printing and Publishing Company Ltd, Keffi. 2007;503.

Naing L, Winn T. Rusli BN. Practical issues in calculating the sample size for prevalence studies. Archives of Orofacial Sciences. 2006;1:9-14.

Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, USA. 2006; 297.

Evans DS, King JD, Eigege A, Umaru J, Adamani W, Alphonsus K. et al. Assessing the WHO 50% prevalence threshold in school-aged children as indication for treatment of urogenital schistosomiasis in adults in Central Nigeria. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2013; 88:441-445.

Ivoke N, Ivoke ON, Nwani CD, Ekeh FN, Asogwa CN, Atama CI. et al. Prevalence and transmission dynamics of Schistosoma haematobium infection in a rural community of South Western Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Tropical Biomedicine. 2014; 31:77-88.

Ofoezie IE. Human health and sustainable water resources development in Nigeria: Schistosomiasis in artificial lakes. Natural Resources Forum. 2012;26(2):150-160.

Ekpo UF, Laja-Deile A, Oluwole AS, Sam-Wobo SO, Mafiana CF. Urinary Schistosomiasis among pre-school children in a rural community near Abeokuta, Nigeria. Parasites Vectors Journal. 2010;3:53-58.

Senghor B, Diallo A, Sylla SN, Doucoure S, Ndiath MO, Gaayeb L. et al. Prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis among school children in the district of Niakhar, region of Fatick, Senegal. Parasites & Vectors. 2014;7(1):1-6.

Mtethiwa AHN, Bakuza J, Nkwengulila G. Prevalence and Intensity of schistosomiasis in communities around water reservoirs in Malawi. Journal of Tropical Diseases & Public Health. 2015; 4(1):6-13.

Rasoamanamihaja CF, Rahetilahy AM, Ranjatoarivony B, Dhanani N, Andriamaro L, Andrianarisoa SH, et al. Baseline prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis at sentinel sites in Madagascar: Informing a national control strategy. Parasites & Vectors. 2016;9(1): 1337-1346.

Ndyomugyenyi R, Minjas JN. Urinary schistosomiasis in schoolchildren in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, and the factors influencing its transmission. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 2011;95(7):697-706.

Olusegun AF, Ehis OC, Richard O. Proportion of urinary schistosomiasis among HIV-infected Subjects in Benin City, Nigeria. Oman Medical Journal. 2011;26: 175-177.

Dawet A, Benjamin CB, Yakubu DP. Prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium among residents of Gwong and Kabong in Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria. International Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2012;7(2):69-73.