Parasite Contamination of Common Fruits and Vegetables from Selected Markets in Awka-North and Awka-South Local Government Areas, Anambra State, Nigeria
South Asian Journal of Parasitology,
Background: The practice of eating raw fruits and vegetables has led to infection with various parasitic diseases. Some flies species has been reported as mechanical transmitters of parasites and so contribute to the spread of the disease-causing organisms on fruits and vegetables. Edible vegetables and fruits sold in selected markets in Awka-North and Awka-South LGAs, Anambra State, Nigeria were examined for parasites between April and August 2018.
Materials and Methods: Three different fruits (Garden egg: Solanium macrocarpon, Local Pear: Dacryodes edulis and Orange: Citrus sinensis) and four different vegetables (Spinach: Amaranthus cruentus, Fluted pumpkin: Telfairia occidentalis, Scent leaf: Ocimum grattissumum, Garden egg leaf: Solanium macrocarpon) were collected. One hundred grams (100g) of each sample was washed separately in beakers containing 100 ml of normal saline. The resulting suspension was sieved to remove debris. Each filtrate was then transferred to a clean labelled specimen bottle and was examined for parasites using floatation and sedimentation techniques.
Results: Of 303 vegetables and fruits samples examined, 167(55.1%) were contaminated [Fruits: 58/135=41.4%; Vegetables: 109/168=64.9%]. Of 90 fruits and 108 vegetables examined in Awka-North markets, 41(45.6%) and 83(76.9%) were contaminated respectively. Of 45 fruits and 60 vegetables examined in Awka-South markets, 17(37.8%) and 26(43.3%) were contaminated respectively. There was higher contamination of fruits and vegetables in Awka-North, 124(62.6%) than Awka-South, 43(41.0%). The overall prevalence was statistically significant (p < 0.05) using χ2. Orange 22(16.3%) was the highest contaminated fruit while Fluted pumpkin 29(17.2%) was the highest contaminated vegetable although not significant (p > 0.05). Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasite recovered on Fruits, 22(16.3%) and vegetables, 41(24.4%).
Conclusion: This investigation has revealed that some fruits and vegetables in the study areas were contaminated with parasites. Therefore, fruits and vegetables should be properly washed and vegetables cooked before consumption to avoid parasite transmission.
- Ascaris lumbricoides
How to Cite
Yoila DM, Utitofon IT. The prevalence of intestinal parasites on fruits sold in markets around Gwagwalada area council, F.C.T. Abuja. American Association for Science and Technology Communications. 2016; 3(2):107-11.
Micheal HJ. High prevalence of positive culture and parasites in stool samples of food handlers in a Thai hospital setting. Med Gen Med. 2009;4(8):1-3.
Abougrain AK, Nahasi MH, Madi NS, Saied MM, Ghenghesh KS. Parasitological contamination in salad vegetables in Tripoli-Libya. Journal of Food Control. 2010;21(5): 760-762.
Ikpeze OO, Chima SC. Soil-transmitted Helminth Parasites contaminating Edible Raw Vegetables and Fruits sold at Nkwo-Edo Market Nnewi, Nigeria. The Bioscientist. 2017;5(1):65-72.
World Health Organization (WHO). Surface decontamination of fruits and vegetables eaten raw. Food Safety. WHO/FSF/FOSl/ 98.2; 2012.
Umeanaeto PU, Igbokwe CC, Onyido AE. Irikannu KC, Ifeanyichukwu MO. Parasites associated with cyclorrhaphan flies caught in selected abattoirs in Awka North and Awka South local Government areas, Anambra state, South Eastern Nigeria. New York Science Journal. 2017;10(8):62-67.
Ngele Kk, Ali AN, Aligwe EN, Ujaa ME, Ujum CI. Prevalence of parasitic ova/cysts on fruits and vegetables sold in Afikpo North Local Government Area, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery. 2017;2:104-109.
Umeanaeto PU, Nwofor OF, Iwueze MO, Ugwuanyi IK, Egbuche CM, Igbodika CM. Parasite contamination of edible vegetables sold in Onitsha markets. The Bioscientist Journal. 2016;4(1):21-31.
Akinseye JF, Ayuba SB, Adewuyi IK, Agunlejika RA. Isolation of intestinal parasites in vegetables sold in major markets in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research. 2017;7(6): 78-83.
Center for Disease Control Prevention (CDC). Epidemiological information 4th Edition, Atlanta, and U.S.A. 2010;50-55.
Simon-Oke IA, Afolabi OJ, Obasola OP. Parasitic Contamination of Fruits and Vege- tables sold at Akure Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria. Researcher. 2014;6(12):30-35.
Fitsum B, Tamirat T, Gelila B, Tsegaye Y. Parasitic contamination of raw vegetables and fruits collected from selected local markets in Arba Minch town, Southern Ethiopia. Infectious Diseases of Poverty. 2017;6(24):123-128.
Abe EM, Ajah LJ, Ayuba SO, Mogaji H, Ekpo UF. Geohelminths contamination of fruits and vegetables sold in Lafia markets. Annual Research & Review in Biology. 2006;11(2):1-8.
Wegayehu T, Tsalla T, Seifu B, Teklu T. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia. Substance Abuse Treatment Prevention and Policy. 2013;4(13):151.
National Population Commission of Nigeria (NPC). Population distribution in local Government areas by sex and number of households. legal notices on publication of the details of the breakdown of the national and state provisional population census totals. Official Gazette. 2006;94(24).
Cheesbrough M. Examination of blood for malaria parasite. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Parasite Contamination. Countries Part 1. Cambridge Low Price Edition. 2006:239-258.
Tamirat T, Abdissa B, Zeleke M, Teferi E. Parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables collected from selected local markets of Jimma Town Southwest Ethiopia. International Scholarly Research Notices. 2014;10:2-7.
Omowaye OS, Audu PA. Parasites contamination and distribution on fruits and vegetables in Kogi, Nigeria, CIBTech Journal of Bio-Protocols. 2012;1(1):44-47.
Oranusi S, Braide W, Etinosa-Okankan OJ. Prevalence of geohelminths on selected fruits and vegetables sold in Owerri, Imo State Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2013;4(2):35-43.
Nasiru M, Auta T, Bawa JA. Geohelminth contamination of fruits and vegetables cultivated on land irrigated with waste water in Gusau Local Government Area, Zamfara State, Nigeria. The Zoologist. 2015;13:7-10.
Wafa A. Prevalence intestinal parasites in leafy vegetables in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia International Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2010;5(2):20-23.
Abstract View: 613 times
PDF Download: 326 times