Phylogeographical Analysis and Visualization of Data of Trypanosoma Isolates from Different Foci in Nigeria Using Microreact and Phandango (2003 – 2018)
South Asian Journal of Parasitology,
Introduction: A combination of phylogenetic tree of trypanosome isolates and the geographical information of the epidemiologic foci can acquaint us with the occurrences of African trypanosomiasis outbreak necessitous for educating the spatial distribution of the parasites, vectors and drawing inferences for planning strategic control programs. Microreact and Phandango are free online tools that enables the visual representation and study of genomic epidemiology of infectious diseases. This study elicits the phylogenetic data of trypanosome isolates and the specific host along with geographical information
Methods: A total of 46 isolates. Protein sequence data of trypanosomes isolated in Nigeria between 2003 and 2018 were extracted from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. Multiple sequence alignment and tree construction were carried out on sequence data files and Newick output was downloaded. Metadata .csv files were prepared accordingly and loaded for visualization in microreact and phandango.
Results: The preponderance of Glossina palpalis was reported in old Oyo National Park and they were majorly incriminated in the transmission of Trypanosoma gravi in Glossina palpalis. Trypanosoma theileri was isolated from the midgut of Glossina morsitan reported to be found in Kainji Lake National Park only. Trypanosoma congolense was reportedly isolated from cattle at Zaria, Glossina morsitans at Kainji Lake National Park, Glossina tachinoid at old Oyo National Park at Oyo and, Glossina palpalis at Yankari Game Reserve Bauchi. Trypanosoma brucei brucei was isolated from a rat in April 2018 at Federe and Vom, Plateau state. In Federe and Vom, Trypanosoma brucei brucei was found in rat in April 2018 while Trypanosoma evansi was obtained from animal in Vom December 2008. In Bida and Tsuaa, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense was isolated from unidentified animals (probably cattles) in October 2009. The analyses also revealed 7 protein sequence which includes 7 protein sequenced including cathepsin L-like protein (CPL) and glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-GAPDH) from Tryapanosoma vivi and Trypanosoma congolense, glycoprotein (GP) from Trypanosoma brucei gambiense; trans-sialidase (TSs) from Trypanosoma evansi; phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and hexokinase 1 (HK1) from Trypanosoma brucei brucei; and also glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-GAPDH) from Trypanosoma theileri.
Conclusion: The study generated a concise visual representation and trajectory of trypanosome isolates in Nigeria along with their genetic metadata and geographic location on a phylogenetic tree which will serve as a reference for information on trypanosomiasis outbreaks in Nigeria, provide blue prints for future outbreak predictions and guide decision-making on strategic control programs.
- geographical information
- epidemiological foci
How to Cite
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