Mapping of Lymphatic Filariasis by Observation of Elephantiasis in Enugu State, Southeastern Nigeria
South Asian Journal of Parasitology,
Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by filarial parasites can lead to complication like swollen legs with rough thickened skin, known as elephantiasis. A study of mapping of LF by observation of elephantiasis in five Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Enugu State.
Aim: The study was to determine the prevalence of elephantiasis according to gender, age and occupation and to develop map of LF prevalence in Enugu State, Southeastern Nigeria.
Study Design: The study was a cross-sectional survey of the studied population for elephantiasis. A total of 349 persons aged 15 years and above, participated in the study. The study was conducted between January and May, 2018 and the participants were selected through systemic sampling technique.
Materials and Methods: Physical examination of individuals was employed to determine elephantiasis. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used for mapping.
Results: A total of 4.9% (17) prevalence of elephantiasis was recorded. Females had highest prevalence, 8.3% (13) against 2.1% (4) in males. There was significant association between elephantiasis and gender (X2 = 7.158, df = 1, p = 0.007, (p < 0.05)). Age group 45 – 54 years had the highest prevalence of 12.3% (7) while no case was observed in age groups 15 – 24 years, 25 – 34 years and 35 – 44 years. There was significant association between elephantiasis and age (X2 = 13.934, df = 5, p = 0.016, (p < 0.05)). Artisans with a prevalence of 11.4% (4) had the highest prevalence, while no case was reported in students, civil servants and carpentry occupation groups. There was no significant association between elephantiasis and occupation (X2 = 4.917, df = 5, p = 0.426, p > 0.05)). Nkanu East (Onichagu) had the highest prevalence with 5 cases (9.1%) while Awgu (Ibite) had the least with 3 cases (3.0%).
Conclusion: People living with LF morbidity are in the study area. The State Ministry of Health and Partners should develop morbidity management activities that will alleviate the burden of elephantiasis.
- lymphatic filariasis
How to Cite
Brant TA, Okorie PN, Ogunmola O, Ojeyode NB, Fatunade SB, Davies E, Saka Y, Stanton MC, Molyneux DH, Stothard JR, Kelly-Hope LA. Integrated risk mapping and landscape characterization of lymphatic filariasis and loiasis in South West Nigeria. Parasite Epidemiology and Control. 2018;3:21-35.
WHO. Lymphatic filariasis. 2021.
Available: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/lymphatic-filariasis Accessed on 13-09-2021 accessed on 13-09-2021
Eneanya OA, Cano J, Dorigatti I, Anagbogu I, Okoronkwo C, Garske T, Donnelly CA. Environmental suitability for lymphatic filariasis in Nigeria. Parasites & Vectors. 2018;11:513.
NPC-National Population Commission. Population Census of Nigeria. Population distribution in Local Government Areas by Sex and Number of Households; 2006.
Popoola L, Olorunnisola O, Ademowo O. Data collection, management and analysis in academic research. The postgraduate school of university of Ibadan, 3rd edition; 2014.
World Health Organization. Operational guidelines for rapid mapping of Bancroftian filariasis in Africa. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2000.
Eigege A, Blaney DD, Amadiegwu S, Miri ES, Umaru J, Jinadu MY, Mathai W, Mackenzie C, Richards FO. Rapid Assessment for Lymphatic filariasis in preparation for combined Ivermectin and albendazole therapy in central Nigeria: a comparison of ICT and hydrocode rates. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2003;68(6):643 – 646.
Agbo OE, Ochanya J. Clinical epidemiology of lymphatic filariasis and community practices and perceptions amongst the Ado people of Benue state, Nigeria. African Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2011;5(2):47-53.
Anosike JC, Nwoke BE, Ajayi EG, Onwuliri CO, Okoro OU, Oku EE, Asor JE., Amajuoyi OU, Ikpeama CA, Ogbusu FI, Meribe CO. Lymphatic Filariasis among Ezza people of Ebonyi State Eastern Nigerian. Annal of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine. 2005;12:181–186.
ESRI ^ "The 50thAnniversary of GIS". ESRI. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
Bernhard P, Makude RW, Magnussen P, Lemnge MM. Genital manifestation and reproductive health in female residents of a Wuchereria bancrofti endemic area in Tanzania. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2000;94(4):409-412.
World Health Organization. Lymphatic Pathology and immunopathology in filariasis, Report of the twelfth meeting of the scientific working group in filariasis, UNDP/World Bank/WHO special programme for research and training in tropical diseases, TDR/FIL–SWG (12)/85 .3.1985.
Gyapong JO, Dollimore N, Binka FN, Ross DA. Lay reporting of elephantiasis of the leg in Northern Ghana, Transactions of the Royal Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1995;89:616-618.
Iboh C, Okon OE, Opara KN, Asor JE, Etim SE. Lymphatic filariasis among the Yakurr people of Cross River state, Nigeria. Parasites and Vectors. 2012; 5:203.
Mba DC, Njoku OO. The prevalence of lymphatic filariasis in Oraeri, Aguata Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. The Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. 2000;21:95-102.
Ivoke NJ, Ezeabikwa BO, Ivoke ON, Ekeh FN, Ezenwaji NE, Odo GE, Onoja US, Eyo JE. Wucherira bancrofti infection in rural tropical guinea-savannah communities: Rapid epidemiological assessment using Immunochromatographic card test and prevalence of hydrocele. Tropical Biomedicine. 2015;32(2):365-375.
Estambale BBA, Simonsen PE, Knight R, Bwayo JJ. Bancroftian filariasis in Kwale district of Kenya I: clinical and parasitological survey in an endemic community. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 1994;88:145–151.
Udoidung NI, Braide IE, Opara KN, Atting IA, Adie H. Current status of Bancroftian filariasis in rural communities of the Lower Cross River Basin, Nigeria. Parasitological and Clinical aspects. Journal of Public Health. 2008;16:383–388.
Gyapong JO, Adjei S, Gyapong M, Asaeah EG. Rapid community diagnosis of Lymphatic filariasis. Acta Tropica. 1996;61: 65-74.
Udonsi JK. The status of human filariasis in relation to clinical signs in the endemic villages of Niger Delta. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 1986;90:424-432.
Kalu NK, Alaribe AAA, Shoniron OT. Using clinical signs to determine the endemicity level of lymphatic filariasis in Afikpo North LGA, Ebonyi state. Global Journal of Bio-Sciences and Biotecnology. 2013;2(4):554-559.
Dunyo SK, Appawu M, Nkrumah FK, Baffoe WA, Pederson EM, Simonsen PE. Lymphatic filariasis on the coast of Ghana. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1996;90: 634–638.
Onapa AW, Simonsen PE, Pedersen EM, Okello DO. Lymphatic filariasis in Uganda: baseline investigations in Lira, Soroti and Katakwi districts. Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2001;95:161–167.
Uttah EC. Prevalence of endemic Bancroftian filariasis in the high altitude region of south-eastern Nigeria. Journal of Vector-Borne Diseases. 2011;48:78–84.
Sherchand JB, Valérie O, Garib DT, Marcel H. Mapping of lymphatic filariasis in Nepal. Filaria Journal. 2003;19,2(1):7.
Abstract View: 62 times
PDF Download: 20 times