South Asian Journal of Parasitology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>South Asian Journal of Parasitology</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/SAJP/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;all areas of basic and applied parasitology.</p> South Asian Journal of Parasitology en-US South Asian Journal of Parasitology Underlying Challenges in the Path of Malaria Elimination: From India Perspective <p>India has shown its determination to achieve malaria elimination by 2030. However, several challenges, which might be potential roadblocks for malaria elimination goal. Among many, few are unreliability on existing reporting system; suitable surveillance methods; presence of asymptomatic parasitic carriers in the endemic population; and increasing insecticide resistance status among the malaria vectors. Nonetheless, stride towards malaria elimination is only achievable, if requisite emphasis would be given on the surveillance system, asymptomatic parasitic reservoirs and address of insecticide resistance status. Additionally, strengthening of the health infrastructure, adequate manpower at primary level and sustainable funding would also be required. The main objective of this paper is to highlight the existing major challenges in the path of Malaria Elimination in India by 2030.</p> Prabal Kumar Chourasia Anand Verma Prachi Pundir Nikhil Shukla Mehul Kumar Chourasia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-08 2020-07-08 9 12 Impact of Population Services International (PSI) Insecticide-treated Net (ITNs) Distribution on Malaria Prevalence in Pregnancy: A Case of Kimilili-Bungoma Sub-County, Kenya <p>Insecticide-treated net (ITN) use is one of the most promising tools which have been shown to reduce the number of mosquito bites. Pregnant women and children less than five years have been specifically designated as high-risk groups, therefore need to be protected by effective personal protection. An intensive effort by Population Services International (PSI) to prevent malaria among vulnerable groups in Kenya by creating a mosquito ‘net culture’ was launched in 2002 sells highly subsidized nets. During the second half of the project (2004-2007) Population service international (PSI) increased its focus on the rural population. Despite these efforts, there is inadequate knowledge about the efficacy of net use in controlling malaria in the high-risk groups in the study area. This research determined the effects of PSI efforts in rural areas by assessing malaria prevalence among the pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Kimilili Sub-county (Bungoma County, Kenya) Hospital. The study used cross-sectional descriptive survey design. It was conducted between April to October 2017 and November 2017 to March 2018 which correspond to during rainy season and dry seasons respectively. The study recruited a total of 320 pregnant women were involved in the study. This was done before the rolling out of the whole family net coverage in twenty-three endemic counties. The information obtained should act as baseline data in the study area for future assessment of the impact of nationwide mass net distribution by the ministry of public health and sanitation. A structured questionnaire was administered to determine net use and a sample of blood was taken by finger prick method to determine the peripheral malaria parasitemia. Some fewer net users were malaria positive as compared to non-users suggesting that net uses were more protected. The course of malaria infection was noted depend on age and parity. This study demonstrates that net use reduce malaria and it’s associated anaemia in pregnancy. Also, dry seasons should not be perceived as low transmission periods because the results revealed that there was still a very significant transmission. It was also concluded that the multigravidae had developed more immunity as compared to the primi- and secundigravidae. It was recommended that the focus for educational programs should shift from net re-treatment to augmenting adherence. Coverage of entire populations will be required to accomplish large reductions of malaria in endemic areas.</p> Mukhwana Dennis Wafula ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-24 2020-06-24 1 8 Impact of Environmental Factors on Anopheline Larval Density <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study aim is to determine the impact of environmental factors on mosquito larval density breeding within Lugbe and Gosa communities.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Anopheline mosquito larval breeding sites were identified and characterized in both dry and wet seasons. Samplings were done in the morning (08:00-12:00 h) or afternoon (14:00-17:00 h) for about 45 mins at each larval habitat. Larval sampling was done using USAID approved techniques.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The Presidential Malarial initiative PMI/USAID - funded Insectary Laboratory at Nasarawa State University, Keffi/six (6) Months.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Standard 350 mL dipper for large water bodies; ladle and plastic pipettes for small water bodies where dippers will not be effective, once forth nightly. Water collected were emptied into a white basin and checked for mosquito larvae. The Anopheline larvae were passed through a 100 mesh sieve and stored in labelled container. Environmental characteristics of each larval habitat were measured and recorded during larval collection. The Environmental data determined included habitat hydrological variables. Data on the amount of rainfall and humidity was gotten from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET). The temperature was determined in-situ using the mercury – in – glass thermometer.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study findings indicate that larval density was seen to be higher in Lugbe than in Gosa. This may not be unconnected to the fact that more habitats were found in Lugbe than in Gosa. Also, it is evident from the result that temperature, rainfall and relative humidity have various degrees of impact on larval density with temporary waters having higher larval density.&nbsp; In this study, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) extracted two significant Principal Components with eigenvalues &gt; 1, explaining about 69.50% and 61.23% of the total variance in corresponding larvae density.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study, has shown that targeting the Anopheline larvae can be an effective tool in the fight against Malaria. Moreover, temperature, relative humidity and rainfall have a great effect on the Anopheline larval densities in Lugbe and Gosa areas of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT).</p> Ngozi Edith Onyemaechi Yoila David Malann Bernard-Malau Matur Suleiman C. Hassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-03 2020-08-03 13 24