Open Access Opinion Article

Disaster Parasitology: A Novel Concept in Disaster Management

Ukpong, Iniodu George

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-6

Overtime parasitology has witnessed the sprouting of intra-disciplinary spurs aside its traditional branches; a situation that has advanced the rapid academic and professional development of the discipline. This article summons an intellectual beam on yet another intra-disciplinary spur birthed out of necessity to respond to emerging demands in global development issues. Owing to rising occurrences of natural disasters and current incessant spates of human-induced catastrophes, especially wars, all sublimating in a growing incidence of mass population displacement, new, multidisciplinary partnership is required to build capacity for appropriate response. Medical and health response constitute a major aspect of partnership in the broader concept of disaster management. Disaster parasitology, or crisis time parasitology, finds relevance in this context, where the need for pre-disaster surveillance, vector ecology assessment, transmission monitoring and evaluation, post-disaster risk assessment /evaluation, health impact assessment, laboratory diagnosis, health education, etc. is of essence. This discourse thus advocates the development and concentration of a new body of knowledge of parasitology that is applicable in disaster management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Intestinal Helminthiasis in Children of Silvercity, Linden (Guyana)

Joenitta Arthur-McKenzie, Abdullah Adil Ansari

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-6

This study was conducted in the Silvercity area, Linden (Guyana) and endeavored to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis in children aged 5-15 and the level of awareness of these parasitic infections among community members. Questionnaires were distributed to 30 households and 26 children from the population aged 5-15 years were selected using a simple random sampling method and tested during the months of February-April 2017 using the fecal wet mount and formalin ether sedimentation method. The mean age was 8 years. The results showed that 15 of 26 children were infected by helminths within the Silvercity area. Among the parasites found, Ascaris lumbricoides were greater in number (n =10) followed by Enterobius vermicularis (n = 5), Trichuris trichiura (n = 4) and hookworm (n =1). Study also found that the level of awareness of transmission among community members was 40%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis among School-Age Children in Kashinzama and Sabiyal in Aliero Local Government Area, Kebbi State, Nigeria

K. Mohammed, J. Hassan, S. A. Opaluwa, T. Adamu, T. H. I. Spencer, O. F. Aschroft, S. U. Nataala

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-8

Background: Urinary schistosomiasis remains an intractable parasitic disease, associated with populations living in poverty in sub-Saharan Africa and it has placed an enormous toll on the health sectors of affected countries

Aims:  The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among school-age children in Aliero Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted among school aged children, Aliero Local Government, Kebbi State, from March to June, 2016.

Methodology: A total of 400 participants were enrolled for the study.Ten (10 ml) of urine samples were collected from each participant in to universal containers. Samples were preserved with 10% formal saline and then transported to laboratory for analysis. Samples were filtered using vacuum pump filtration machine and Whatman No.1 filter paper and were then examined under the microscope to determine the presence of ova of Schistosoma haematobium.

Results: Out of 400 urine samples 128(32.0%) had infection with mean egg intensity of 63.4/10 ml of urine, with significant difference (p>0.005) in infection rates among males (35.1%) and females (19.7%). The age specific prevalence is higher among 10-14years (38.8%) with significant difference (p>0.001). The occupational distribution of the infection was higher among fishermen (64.1%) with significant statistical difference (p>0.001).

Conclusion:The result of this study shows the establishment of moderate S. haematobium infection in the study area (32.0%).The finding of our study shows a significant correlation between the associated risk factors and Schistosoma haematobium infection using simple and multiple regression analysis each with significant statistical difference. The attention of concerned authorities is needed to address the problem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis and Efficacy of Praziquantel; a Case Study of School Pupils in Oke-Igbo, Ondo State, Nigeria

O. E. Onifade, M. O. Oniya

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-10

Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) and remains a major public health problem among school-aged pupils in developing countries. In this study, urine samples were collected along with basic demographic information from 528 pupils from 3 primary schools in Oke-Igbo community of Ondo state, Nigeria. Centrifugation technique was used in the analysis of urine samples for Schistosoma haematobium. Out of the 528 pupils, I05 (19.9%) were infected while 37(7.0%) showed visible haematuria. Positive cases were treated using Praziquantel (40 mg/kg body weight) and a rescreening was done for the treated pupils 3months post-treatment to assess the efficacy of Praziquantel at the standard dose. 7 (6.7%) pupils were still positive after rescreening, with haematuria cases in 4 (3.8%). Age group 6-10 years had the highest frequency in the 3 schools, which is suggestive that they engaged more in water-contact activities. Praziquantel administered in a single oral dose at 40 mg/kg body weight showed 93.3% parasitological cure rate with a Percentage Geomean Egg Count (GMEC) reduction of 77.72%. There was a significant difference in the prevalence rate between age groups and gender (P<0.05). Disease control in Ondo State, is basically centred on chemotherapy hence, the rate of re-infection following parasitological cure is still of major concern. There is need for more political commitment from the government to provide basic amenities such as toilet facilities, and pipe borne water to rural areas other than the usual chemotherapy if elimination is to be achieved.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Crab-eating Influence on Paragonimiasis Infection in Six Communities of Abayong from Cross River State Nigeria

Cletus Inah Iboh

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-9

Background: The investigation of paragonimiasis infection was carried out among inhabitants of Abayong communities in Cross River State, Nigeria.

Aim: The study was aimed at investigating the Crab-eating influence on paragonimiasis.

Materials and Methods: Crab-eating behaviour of the people was observed and sputum samples examined for eggs/ova of Paragonimus uterobilateralis

Statistical Analysis: Infection between males and females was compared using Chi-square test, while Analysis of variance was used to compare infection between Age groups, occupation and location.

Results: Out of 830 sputum samples examined consisting 67 (19.2%) males and 56 (11.6%) females, an overall paragonimiasis prevalence of 14.8% was recorded. There were more males infected than females with evidence of a significant difference (p < 0.001) between them.  Higher frequency of crab-eating revealed more intensity of infection. The intensity of infection revealed that 56.96%, 33.3% and 1.0% persons showed low, moderate and high intensity respectively, of eggs/ova counts per 5ml of sputum.

Paragonimiasis infection was highest (24.9%) in Ijom Abayong and lowest (5.2%) in Abrijang. Risk exposure of each occupation to paragonimiasis revealed that Food vendors had the highest risk ratio of 1.025. Teachers, Farmers, Fishermen, Students and Artisans have 70%, 14%, 34%, 67% and 35% respectively of the risk of their non-exposed members to contract paragonimiasis.

Conclusion. This study revealed that paragonimiasis is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis ravaging the six communities of Abayong. Mass education of the inhabitants is advocated to create awareness of the consequences of eating improperly cooked crab meals, to reduce infection and re-emergence of paragonimiasis.