Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Predictors of Entamoeba histolytica Infection among School-age Children in Wamakko Local Government Area, Sokoto State Nigeria

K. Mohammed, I. Tijjani, T. H. I. Spencer, A. B. Mohammed, M. K. Garba, S. U. Nataala, A. U. Imam, O. F. Aschroft

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-14

Entamoeba histolytica is an important protozoan of man, it is the third most common and widespread parasitic cause of death world-wide.

Aims:  The study was aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of Entamoeba histolytica among primary school children in Wamakko Local Government area of Sokoto state.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted among school-aged children, in Wamakko Local Government Area, Sokoto State, between May 2016 to November 2017.

Methodology: Faecal samples were collected from three hundred and seventy-one (371) pupils and analysed using direct wet smear and Formol Ether Concentration Technique.

Results: The overall prevalence was found to be 211 (56.9%). Although more males pupils are infected with 50.5% than a female with 49.6%, the difference was not statistically significant (p-value = 0.330). The higher prevalence of infection obtained from males pupils might be attributed to male children being more engaged in extracurricular activities such as recreational activities and games. With regards to age groups used in the study, 29 pupils within age group of 14-15 years, 19 (65.5%) were found to be infected with E. histolytica and has the highest prevalence of infection, this was attributed to the fact that being older they engaged in activities such as assisting their parent in farming like irrigation, taking manure to farm etc.

Conclusion: The findings of the study reveals that there was a high prevalence of E. histolytica in the study area and is still a major public health problem in north-western Nigeria. This also showed that personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and poor access to safe water contributes to transmission of E. histolytica in the study area.

It also reveals that the control measures taken are not effective and this could be among the difficulties encounter for the control of amoebiasis in the study area.

Great success toward the control of the infection can be achieved through the integration of complementary strategies by government agencies and non-governmental organisations such as disease surveillance, mass chemotherapy, health education, construction and use of toilets in all primary schools, religious centres, markets and the general public sanitation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Soil -Transmitted Helminth in Three Communities of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

D. A. Goodhead, A. P. Ugbomeh, H. Chuku

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-7

Intestinal nematode parasites or soil transmitted helminths (STH) are parasitic nematodes with an essential phase of their asexual life cycle occurring in the soil, where they may persist until contact is made with a suitable host. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of these soil transmitted helminth parasites in selected communities (Rumuewhor, Ubimini and Elibrada) of the Niger Delta in Nigeria. 300 soil samples were collected randomly from school fields, roadsides and around residential areas in the three communities from December 2016 to May 2017. Laboratory work on collected samples was by sieving and centrifugal floatation method. Results show 56.7% of the screened samples were contaminated with ova of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and ova and larvae of hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). A. lumbricoides ova was recorded in 45.16% of the samples, T. trichiura in 21.51% and hookworm complex in 33.33%. From the communities sampled, Rumuewhor had a prevalence of 74 %, followed by Ubimini (60%), with the least at Elibrada (40%). The prevalence by soil type was 46.24% for loamy soil, 31.18% for clayey soil and 22.58% for sandy soil, while the proportion of ova to larvae was 2:1. The study has highlighted the public health implications for the people who live in the communities studied and has recommended the improvement of basic environmental and sanitary conditions of the populace and the need for health education programmes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Investigation of Intestinal Parasites Infection amongst School Children in Bendi, Cross River State of Nigeria

Ukpong, Iniodu George, Agamse, David Igba

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-8

Background: Human intestinal parasites steadily constitute a source of impaired growth and development, and among the leading causes of death of children in developing countries. Consistent epidemiological studies are imperative to identify high-risk populations.

Aim: This study sought to ascertain the occurrence of intestinal parasites among primary school children in St. Peter Primary School, Bendi 1, a rural community in Cross River State of Nigeria, as a preliminary step towards evidence-based intervention.

Methodology: Stool specimen was collected from 132 pupils who were available to enroll in the study. Samples were analysed macroscopically and microscopically using direct saline wet mount method and Formaline-ethyl acetate concentration technique. Socio-demographic data of pupils were collected through a pretested questionnaire.

Results: Overall prevalence of 56.1% of intestinal helminths and protozoans was recorded; including Entamoeba histolytica as the most common, (43.7%), Hookworm, (31.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides, (14.6%), Giardia lamblia (5.8%), Schistosoma mansoni, (2.9%), and Enterobius vermicularis, (1.9%). Prevalence was higher in males (54.1%). The age group 1-5 years was the least infected, but infection reduced with age from the highest prevalence of 67% among 6-10 years age range to 31.1% among pupils 11-15 years old. Age-related infection was statistically significant (P = 0.05). The prevalence of polyparasitism was 36.5%.

Conclusion: A high prevalence of intestinal parasite infection was identified among pupils. School children could be a focus of infection in the community. This finding presents an alarming need for intervention in Bendi community. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Peri-urban Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Transmission Dynamics with Regard to Associated Risk Factors in Mt. Elgon Focus, Kenya

Mukhwana Wafula Dennis, Makwali A. Judith, Ngeiywa Moses, Anjili O. Chris

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-9

The cutaneous leishmaniasis infection status caused by Leishmania aethiopica and the vector sand flies distribution in relation to risk factors were investigated in the sites of Bungoma and Trans-Nzoia counties of Mt. Elgon region. These sites are allopatric. The sand flies Collections from the sites were carried out for five nights of each month using Center for Disease Control (CDC) light traps. Mean monthly data of ambient temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity in the two Counties were recorded during the 2015 study period. These data was obtained from Kimilili and Kitale weather stations of Bungoma and Trans-Nzoia study sites respectively. Soil temperatures were recorded monthly in the study sites. Thirty four patients clinically suspected of the disease were tested through microscopic examination for the presence of amastigote forms in their tissue biopsies upon signing the consent form. 657 sand fly specimens were collected. In the two sites, both homesteads and caves where sand flies were trapped only Phlebotomus pedifer were found. Sand fly abundance was negatively correlated with soil temperature, rainfall and relative humidity. The variation of case age-groups and the fact that all the cases were found in peri-urban areas suggests that there is an active transmission going on with Phlebotomus pedifer as the only vector in all the allopatric areas studied. It can also be concluded that like Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus pedifer can also cause transmission away from rural areas. Basing on the results of this research, it is recommended that People should not enter the caves since unprotected to avoid infection. Furthermore, the actual reservoir host within the peri-urban study sites needs to be investigated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook on Haematological Parameters of Swiss Albino Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei NK 65

E. O. Dada, D. Muhammed

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-8

The incidence of severe anaemia in malaria as a result of Plasmodium infection, has necessitated the need for discovery and development of plant extract that could stimulates the production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis) and boost the immune system to fight the parasite. Acute toxicity of ethanolic leaf extract of Eucalyptus citriodora and effect of the leaf extract on haematological parameters in mice infected with P. berghei NK 65 were assessed. Mice were acclimatized for seven days before the commencement of infection and treatment. Twenty (20) mice were randomized into 5 groups of four mice each for acute toxicity test, and twenty-four (24) mice were randomized into six groups (groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) of four mice each, for haematological analysis. All mice were of body weights between 18-25 g. Mice of all groups were infected with P. berghei, except group 3 (normal control). Groups 4, 5 and 6 were treated with 0.2 mL of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg body weight of extract respectively. Mice in group 2 (positive control) were treated with 0.2 mL of 5 mg/kg body weight of chloroquine. Mice of group 1 (Negative control) were treated with 0.2 mL of normal saline, while mice of group 3 (normal control) were administered with 0.2mL of normal saline for four consecutive days. Standard methods were used to determined acute toxicity and haematological parameters of the mice. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, and the extract was safe and nontoxic to all mice. Haematological analysis revealed an increase in values of packed cell volume, red blood cells, haemoglobin, platelet, lymphocyte, Mean Cell haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Cell Corpuscular Volume (MCV) and Mean Cell haemoglobin (MCH) in mice of groups 4, 5 and 6 (Mice treated with different concentrations of the extract). Mice of group 3 had the highest value, followed by group 2 (chloroquine treated group). Mice of group 1 (negative control) showed lowest values of these parameters and highest WBCs counts. This study revealed the potency of Eucalyptus citriodora as a future herbal candidate that can enhances and boost haematological indices.