Open Access Original Research Article

Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica: Parasitic Causes of Diarrhoea in Children Under - Five Years Old Attending Out – Patient Clinics in South-South Nigeria

I. A. Atting, O. Ibatt, M. I. Akpan, A. N. Umo

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-8

Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of some intestinal protozoans among diarrhoeic and apparently healthy children under - five years old in Eket and Ibeno, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria between October, 2013 and April, 2014. The study also established spatial distribution of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia in the study areas.

Study Design: A total of 150 freshly - voided diarrhoeic samples of children attending Primary Health Care Centre, Eket and General Hospital, Ibeno, and 50 non–diarrhoeic samples were collected  which served as controls.

Methodology: Direct stool microscopy and concentration techniques were utilised to identify parasites. Questionnaires were also administered.

Results: Giardia lamblia had the highest prevalence of 11% in Eket while Entamoeba histolytica had the highest prevalence of 16% in Ibeno. The prevalence of parasitic pathogens decreased with increase in age of participants. However, there was no statistical significant difference between these parasites and age of the subjects across the study areas (P>0.05). There was no case of the parasites in exclusively breast-fed children whereas a high prevalence was recorded among those who were not breast-fed, Eket (91.1%) and Ibeno (95.0%).  The prevalence of pathogens had the highest occurrence in those who used water from the stream in Eket (90.0%). The relationship between the water source and intestinal parasites across the study areas showed a statistical significant difference (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: In this study the incidence of parasitic pathogens in under-five children could be traced to contaminated drinking water sources and feeding patterns of the children. Thus, there is a clarion call for sustained health information, communication and education (IEC) of nursing mothers and caregivers in the proper care and handling of these under-fives to curb this menace of intestinal parasitic pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis in Relation with Anaemia among Individuals Living in Igbo-Ora, Oyo State

A. G. Ibrahim, O. A. Oluwatoba, R. I. Nwuba

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-10

Sub-Saharan Africa is endemic with soil transmitted helminthes and they have detrimental effects on humans. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Soil Transmitted helmithiasis, its risk factors and its effect on Haemoglobin concentration among individuals at Igbo-Ora, Oyo State. A cross-sectional study involving 274 individuals at Igbo-Ora was conducted from March to August 2013. Intestinal helminthic infections were diagnosed using Kato-Katz technique and anaemia was determined by measuring the Packed Cell Volume (PCV) using the haematocrit centrifuge and reader. Among the participants, 28.8% were infected with intestinal helminthes and the overall prevalence of anemia was 12.8% ranging from individuals with no infection to individuals with single and multiple infections. Species-wise, prevalence of single STH infections was 23%, 17.2%, 2.6% and 0.4% for hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichuris trichiura respectively while double helminthic infections were A. lumbricoides+hookworm 10.6% and hookworm+Strongyloides 1.5%. Level of education, hand washing after using the toilet, age and shoe wearing habit were significantly associated with risk of getting STH infections. A. lumbricoides, hookworm and triple multiple infections were associated with an increased risk of anaemia (OR= 0.999, 95% CI 0.39, 2.561), (OR= 0.817, 95% CI 0.339, 1.971) and (OR= 9.145, 95% CI 4.578, 18.269), respectively, but they were not statistically significant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Biochemical Changes Observed in Apparently Healthy Cattle and Those with Bovine Fasciolosis in Maiduguri Abattoir” Borno State Nigeria

Munira Ali, Haruna Baba Galadima, Hauwa Ibrahim Abdulrahman, Jibrin Yerima, Ali Waziri

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-8

The objectives of the study was to evaluate some serum biochemical changes in cattle naturally infected with Fasciola species at Maiduguri Abattoir and to determine the association between serum biochemical parameters with breed, sex and body condition score of apparently healthy cattle.  A total number of 25 randomly selected cattle were used for this study based on different body condition score and sex groups. The breeds of cattle studied were: Wadara, Red bororo (or Rahaji), Ambala, Sokoto Gudali, Kuri and Arbore. Blood samples from all animals were carefully collected during slaughter in an anticoagulant bottle (EDTA as anticoagulant), labelled and mixed properly. Total plasma protein was determined using the refractometry method. Minerals such as sodium, potassium were determined by flame photometry, while bicarbonate and chloride were determined by titration method using the serum that was centrifuged. The findings of this study showed that there were no differences between the biochemical parameters of healthy cattle and fasciolosis infected cattle. Similarly, there were no differences in biochemical parameters as it relates to breed, sex and body condition score of apparently healthy cattle.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Tongue Worm (Linguatula serrata) in Dogs Slaughtered in Jos-south Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria

K. I. Ogbu, M. T. Tion, S. O. Ochai, O. S. Olaolu, I. M. Ajegena

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-7

Aim: The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of tongue worm (Linguatula serrata) in dogs slaughtered at Bukuru dog market, Jos-South Local Government Area (L.G.A).

Study Design: The study was cross-sectional in which only indigenous dogs meant for slaughter were examined. A total of 230 dogs were randomly selected for the presence of pentastomid parasite. Parameters such as age and sex of the dogs were noted during sampling.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Bukuru dog market, Jos-South L.G.A. of Plateau State, Nigeria from May to July, 2017.

Methodology: Buccal (sublingual) examination was used to identify the parasites.

Result: A total of 111 dogs were positive representing an overall prevalence of 48.26%. Based on age, the prevalence among puppies (young) dogs was 55.45% while that of the adult was 41.67%. Based on sex, the prevalence among female dogs was 50.86% while that of the males was 45.61%. The association between puppies and adults was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) while based on sex, there was no significant difference.

Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of linguatuliasis in the study area and adequate preventive measures should be ensured by dog owners and handlers to avoid the transmission of this parasitic zoonosis among humans, dogs and other intermediate hosts.

Open Access Review Article

The Incidence of Maternal Malaria among Antenatal Attendees in Primary Health Center, Masaka, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

A. Z. Koggie, S. C. Sambo, L. Y. Adogo

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-7

Background: In Nigeria, more than 90% of the total population of the country is at risk of malaria infection and about 50% of the population suffers from at least one episode of the disease annually. Malaria in pregnant women is associated with adverse maternal and fetal complications which can result to death if left untreated.

Aim: The aim of this study is to ascertain the incidence of maternal malaria among antenatal attendees in a Primary Health Center, Masaka, Nasarawa State.

Methods: One hundred and fifty (150) pregnant women were recruited for this study. Structured questionnaire was administered; 2 mls of peripheral blood was collected. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared to check for the Plasmodium parasites.

Results: An incidence rate of 44.67% was obtained from this study. One hundred and fifty (150) pregnant women were examined for malaria parasites, out of which 67 (44.67%) were positive for malaria infection while 83 (55.33%) were negative for malaria infection. A 75% incidence rate of malaria was recorded in the Primigravidae women while 35% incidence rate was recorded in the multigravidae. The highest prevalence of 56.86% was recorded, and the least prevalence was in the second trimester 37.5%. Pregnant women within the age group of 17-22 years recorded the highest prevalence rate of 69.44%. The Chi-square analysis used in this study, reveals that there was no significant relationship (P>0.05) between malaria in relation to gestation, gravid status, age and occupation. 

Conclusion: The incidence of Malaria infection is high among the antenatal attendees in Primary Health Centers Masaka. Routine screening is highly recommended and there should be more enlightenment on best practices to prevent malaria during pregnancy.