Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antiplasmodial Activity of Ethanolic Bark Extract of Khaya grandifoliola in Swiss Albino Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65

A. A. Alo, E. O. Dada, D. Muhammed

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-8

Irrespective of the decreased in incidence and prevalence, malaria remains a major public health problem. Evolution and spread of resistance to the available antimalarial drugs endanger all the recent gains in malaria control. This issue makes the development of novel drugs a necessity. The key source in search of such drugs is medicinal plants (Khaya grandifoliola). Khaya grandifoliola is use for management of malaria, but no scientific investigations have been carried out to substantiate the usage. Thus, this study assessed the bioactive components and antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic bark extract of K. grandifoliola. Standard methods were employed to determine the bioactive components of the bark extract. Twenty four (24) mice were randomly selected into six groups of four mice each (group 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) for antiplasmodial activity. The Plasmodium berghei infected groups were treated with K. grandifoliola extract with 0.2 mL of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg body weight respectively.  Group 1 (negative control) was infected with P. bergheiand administered with 0.2 mL of normal saline, Group 2 (positive control) were treated with 0.2 mL of 5 mg/kg body weight of chloroquine while group 3 (normal control) was not infected and administered with 0.2mL of normal saline for four consecutive days. Phytochemical Screening showed alkaloids, saponins, tannins and anthraquinone. The extract treated groups 4, 5 and 6 revealed decrease in percentage parasitaemia comparedwith group 1 (infected and not treated). The parasitaemia reduction was high in group 6 (600 mg/kg). The significant decrease (P<0.05) in percentage parasitaemia was dose and time dependent. This result indicates that K. grandifoliola has a promising antiplasmodial activity and it could be considered as a potential source to develop new antimalarial agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Avian Malaria Parasites of Domestic Birds in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria

Amaka, John I., Ezeugwu, Ifeanyi B., Ijaiya, Idayat S., Umar, Yusuf K.

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-9

This study assessed the presence of avian malaria parasites in thin blood smears stained with Giemsa. A total of 109 poultry birds were examined out of which 49 were chicken, 20 were pigeons, 20 were turkeys and 20 were ducks. The poultry subjects comprised 45 males and 56 females. Malaria parasites were observed in 18 (16.5%) of these animals. Three species of Plasmodium were observed among the poultry subjects, which are: Plasmodium gallinaceum in the chicken, Plasmodium relictum in the pigeon and Plasmodium durae both in the turkey and the duck. Pigeon had the highest rate of parasitaemia 6 (30%), followed by turkey 5 (25%), duck 3 (15%) and the least in the chicken 4 (8.2%). Out of the 45 male and 56 female birds examined, infection rates were 8 (17.8%) and 10 (17.9%) respectively. Both adult and young birds had the same infection rate 9 (8.3%). Infection rates did not show any significant difference (P<0.05) between age and sex of the poultry subjects. Of the 109 birds sampled, 48 (44%) were sampled in Obukpa and 61 (56%) in Nsukka town out of which 10 (20.8%) were infected in Obukpa and 8 (13.1%) in Nsukka.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Larvicidal Potential of the Leaf Extracts of Hyptis suaveolens Poit against Anopheles and Culex Mosquitoes

I. Amaka, John, Attah, D. Daniel, M. Galamaji, Muhammed, S. Ijaiya, Idayat

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-9

This study evaluated the larvicidal potential of the ethanolic and aqueous leaf extract of Hyptis suaveolens Poit on the 4th larval instar of laboratory-reared Anopheles spp and Culex spp at varying concentrations of 0.1ml, 0.2ml, 0.3ml, 0.4ml and 0.5ml for specified periods of 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs. Qualitative phytochemcial screening of the leaf extract identified bioactive components like alkaloid, saponin, phenol, anthraquinone and flavonoid. The LC50 and LC90 values obtained from Probit Analysis using SPSS version 20 at 95% confidence limit (CL) (P≤0.05) indicate that the ethanolic leaf extracts of Hyptis spp had the greatest toxicity on Anopheles spp and Culex spp within 24hrs of exposure at median LC50 values of 0.485ml and 0.497ml respectively. Ethanolic Hyptis spp was 0.061 times more potent on Anopheles spp than Culex spp. The results of this research, therefore, underscores the efficacy of the plants especially Hyptis suaveolens Poit as an eco-friendly alternative in mosquito control. It is, therefore, recommended that quantitative phytochemical screening, application of column chromatography as well as thin layer chromatography be carried out on the extracts to purify and isolate toxic phytochemical with larvicidal potentiality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiological Study of Soil-Transmitted Helminthic among Primary School Pupils in Jega, Kebbi State, Nigeria

M. M. Galamaji, A. Aisha, A. L. Hafsat

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-7

An assessment study to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with soil-transmitted helminthiasis was carried out between Augusts to November 2017 in Jega local government area of Kebbi state, Nigeria. Stool samples were collected from each participant and structured questionnaire applied. Stool samples were examined for geo-helminthiasis by formal-ether concentration technique. A total of 200 primary school pupils were examined for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) and 43(21.5%) were found infected with different geo-helminth species. Logistic regression analysis indicates that the infection was associated with: Farming occupation (OR= 4.47, P <0.0001, 95% CI=2.20-9.09), Gender (Odds Ratio=3.295, P = .01, 95% CI = 1.58-6.89), source of drinking water (OR = 2.55, P = .01, 95% CI = 1.28-5.07 for well water) and Regular hands washing (OR=2.46, P = .03, 95% CI=1.13-5.33). In this study, it was concluded that unhygienic behavioural variables, certain environmental and socio-demographic factors predicted the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the area. Sustainable intervention measures should include public health education, access to clean water, improved in the standard of living and adequate sanitation.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among School-age Children in Ogbese, Ondo State, Nigeria

M. F. Ibiyemi, E. O. Dada, O. O. Julius, F. A. Ajayi

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-6

Aim: Prevalence of human intestinal parasitic infections among school age children in Ogbese town, Akure North,Nigeria was investigated between January and June 2015.

Study Design: This was a prospective cross sectional study. Information about sex, age and other epidemiological habits was collected from all the participating children using standard questionnaires

Methodology: A total of 250 stool samples were examined for human intestinal parasitic infections using standard parasitological method.

Results: Overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 66.8% (167/250). The human intestinal parasites encountered with their prevalence are Entamoeba histolytica (18.8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (12.8%), Giardia lamblia (11.2%), Hookworm (10.8%), Schistosoma mansoni (6.4%), Trichuris trichiura (4.4%) and Strongloides stercoralis (2.4%). The prevalence in intestinal parasitic infections was higher in males (37.2%) than their female’s counterparts (29.6%). The highest prevalence of the parasitic infection was recorded in age group 4 – 8 years (27.6%) while those in age group 14 – 18 years had the lowest prevalence (12.8%). Highest prevalence was observed in children that uses bush toilet (48.0%) compared to those that have access to standard toilet facility. Prevalence recorded was higher among children using stream and pond as source of water (42.8%) and have least prevalence in children using tap and borehole as source of water (7.6%). The prevalence was low among children with (clean) cut nail (14.0%) compare to children with uncut nails (52%). The result was statistically significant (p< 0.005).

Conclusion: The findings of this study reveal high prevalence of intestinal parasite among the school children, which is because a greater number of the children defecate openly and do not follow hygiene. E. histolytica was the most common intestinal parasite with highest prevalence in this study. The higher prevalence in intestinal parasite observed among the age 4-8 years school children.