Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological Changes in Co-Administration of Artemisinin and Anti-Oxidants to Immuno-Compromised Mice

K. E. Asemota, M. A. Omoirri, S. E. Iloh, E. G. Obi

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-10

The health of the body is dependent on the immune system’s ability to recognize and repel, or destroy foreign invaders that may cause disease. Dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic corticosteroid medication has been known to pose immunosuppressant activity. Current study investigated the effect(s) of co-administration of Antioxidant Vitamins with Artemisinin on haematological parameters [Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Eosinophil Count (EC), Monocyte Counts (MC), Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and Lymphocyte Count (LC)] of immunocompromised mice. Sixty (n = 60) adult male (20 g- 35 g) albino mice were grouped into six (6) of ten (10) rats per group. While Group 1 received standard diet (control), Groups 2 - 6 respectively received 0.3 mg/kg body weight of Dex, 0.3 mg/kg of Dex + inoculated with P. berghei, 0.3 mg/kg of Dex + inoculated with P. berghei + 56 mg/kg of Artemisinin, 0.3 mg/kg of Dex + inoculated with P. berghei + Vitamin C, and 0.3 mg/kg of Dex + inoculated with P. berghei + Vit E. After 28 days of treatment, mice were fasted overnight and euthanized by cervical dislocation. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture and assayed for haematological changes. Following comparison, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) returned a statistically significant increase in Platelet Count was seen for group 3 mice, with other parameters returning an insignificant decrease. Study also found average values of PCV, LC, MCV, MCH, and MCHC to be statistically insignificant in groups 5 and 6. We recommend the co-administration of antioxidant vitamins in malaria infected and/or immunosuppressed animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oral Administration of Coenzyme Q10 has the Capacity to Stimulate Innate Lymphoid Cells Class Two during Experimental Cerebral Malaria

James N. Nyariki, Daniel Mokaya, Ngalla E. Jillani, Nemwel O. Nyamweya, Alfred Orina Isaac

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-9

Cerebral malaria is a complex neurological syndrome, whose pathology is mediated by inflammatory processes triggered by the immune system of the host following infection with P. falciparum. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an obligatory cofactor in the electron transport chain and a potent antioxidant which has been identified as a modulator of gene expression, inflammation and apoptosis. However, the modulatory effects of CoQ10 during Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection process and risk occurrence of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) have not been determined. In the present study we sought to determine the role of CoQ10 in regulation of innate lymphoid cells during pathogenic immune responses of ECM. We observed significant increase in the percentage of Innate lymphoid class two (ILC2) in the spleens of Co-Q10 supplemented PbA-infected mice; whereas the frequency of Innate lymphoid class one (ILC1) and Innate lymphoid class three (ILC3) were comparable in the spleens upon PbA infection. The results also show Splenic ILC2 from CoQ10 mice are avid co-producer of IL-13 (Th2 phenotype cytokine) during ECM. Our data collectively demonstrates that Coenzyme Q10 administration was very effective in stimulating ILC2, which are known to play a protective role during ECM.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Soil Transmitted Helminthes (STHs) among Pupils of Community Primary Schools in Nkpor and Mgbodohia Communities in Rivers State, Nigeria

LeBari Barine Gboeloh, Ike-Ihunwo Chikaire Ndamzi

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-10

Soil transmitted helminthes (STHs) are common public health concern among children in Sub saharan Africa. A study to determine the prevalence and intensity of these parasites among pupils of two primary schools in Nkpor and Mgbodohia communities, Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria was conducted. The formo-ether concentration technique was used to concentrate and separate the eggs and cysts from the faeces. Out of 107 pupils (56 males and 51 females) investigated, 81(75.7%) were positive for at least one gastrointestinal helminth. The parasites identified included Ascaris lumbricoide (60.5%), Hookworms (23.5%), Trichirus trichiura (13.6%) and A. lumbricoide + T. trichiura (2.5%). Ascaris lumbricoide was significantly (P= .05) higher in prevalence than other parasites. Although more males (53.1%) were infected than females (47.0%), there was no significance (P=.05) difference in the prevalence in relation to sex. Of the 43 males infected, 26(46.4%), 6(10.7%), 11(19.6%) and 0(0%) haboured A. lumbricoide, T. trichiura, Hookworms and mixed infection (A. lumbricoide + T. trichiura) repectively. Out of the 38 females infected, 23(45.1%), 5(9.8%), 8(15.7%) and 2(3.9%) haboured A. lumbricoide, T. trichiura, Hookworms and mixed infection (A. lumbricoide + T. trichiura) repectively. There was no significance difference in the prevalence of A. lumbricoide between males (46.4%) and females (45.1%). There was significant difference in prevalence of soil transmited helminthes (STHs) among two major age groups (5-10years-47.0% and 11-15years-44.4%). Children within the age group of 16-20years had the least infection (8.6%). The intensities of A. umbricoide, T. trichiura and hookworm were 246.5, 107.5 and 187 Epg respectively. The intensity of A. lumbricoide was significantly higher than other parasites identified. Soil transmited helminthes remain a public health concern among children in the study area. Provision of portable water, toilet facilities, good education on the epidemiology of STHs and regular de-worming exercise will enhance control measures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-malarial and Histopathological Effect of Plasmodium berghei Infected Mice Treated with Extracts of Sarcocephalus latifolius and Pterocarpus osun

Lydia Etuk Udofia, Monday Isaiah Akpanabiatu, Udofia, Etuk Wilson

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-15

Aim: The study addressed anti-malarial activity, haematological, biochemical and histopathological changes due to the administration of ethanol extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius (leaf), Pterocarpus osun (stem bark) and the combined extract of the two plants in Plasmodium berghei parasitised mice.                                                                                                                   

Study Design: Fifty-six mice were weighed and divided into 14 groups of 4 mice each. Infected mice in groups 1-9 were treated with P. osun extract (PO1, PO2, PO3), S. latifolius extract (SL1, SL2, SL3), combined extracts of P. osun and S. latifolius (POSL1, POSL2, POSL3); all at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight respectively. Group 10 received chloroquine, Group 11 were infected without treatment. Group 12 and 13 respectively received P. osun and S. latifolius extract (200 mg/kg body) only. Animals in group 14 serve as normal control.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria July-November, 2017.

Methodology: Extracts obtained from powdered plant materials were screened for phytochemical constituents and used in the treatment of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Average percentage parasitaemia was calculated by dividing the number of erythrocytes by number of parasitised erythrocytes multiplied by one hundred. Toxicity and histopathological studies were carried out on the typical spleen and liver sections of the experimental mice. One way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analysis.

Results: Qualitative phytochemical screening indicated that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins were present in the plant samples. The highest percent reduction in parasitaemia was observed in S. latifolius treatment group (400 mg/kg body weight) which also compared favourably with Chloroquine treatment group (control). S. latifolius treatment group (400 mg/kg body weight) and the combined extract at 100 mg/kg body weight could be considered as effective doses considering the observable changes noted in the hematological indices. Histopathological examination revealed hemosiderosis and hepatic necrosis.

Conclusions: The result showed that S. latifolius extract at 400 mg/kg body weight reduced parasitaemia significantly while P. osun boosted the haematological indices without parasite reduction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Parasitic Agents Associated with Cockroaches in Dutsin-Ma Town, Northwestern Nigeria

T. Auta, H. S. Yantaba, A. Everest

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-6

Background: Cockroaches are known to be mechanical vectors of disease-causing agents such as parasites, bacteria, fungi and viruses. This study determined parasitic agents associated with cockroaches in Dutsin-Ma Town, Northwest Nigeria. A total of 600 cockroaches were collected from toilets, dumpsites, suck-away and sewages of Female and Male Hostels of Federal University Dutsin-Ma, residential houses in Darawa, Hayin-Gada and Kadangaru in Dutsin-Ma Town.

Aims: To provide the public with this knowledge, this study was put forward to determine parasitic agents associated with cockroaches in Dutsin-Ma Town, Northwestern Nigeria.

Study Design: The study was carried out in Dutsin-Ma Local Government Area, Nigeria. Cockroaches collected from the toilets had the highest parasite load, followed by those from the suck-away, and those from the dump site and then cockroaches from the sewages.

Results and Discussion: A total of 600 cockroaches (identified as Periplanata americana species) were examined, 95.33% were infected with several species of gastrointestinal parasites. Parasites isolated and identified include Strongyloides stercolaris (25.26%), fluke (17.89%), Nyctotherus ovalis (2.98%), Enterobius vermicularis (13.68%), Entamoeba histolytica (12.28%), Toxascaris leonina (24.46%). More parasites were recovered from the gastro-intestinal than on the external parts with prevalence rates of 97.33% and 92.67%, respectively.

Conclusion: This study has shown that Periplanata americana represent an important reservoir of parasites which can cause disease in man. Hence public awareness is required to educate people on the potential of Periplanata americana in transmitting intestinal parasites thus, there is a need to control cockroaches indoors and outside.