Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Rapid Diagnostic Test and Microscopy in the Detection of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Infection among Young Adults in South-western Nigeria

Seyi Samson Enitan, Emmanuel Ileoma, Esther Ngozi Adejumo, Olayimika Kehinde Adebola, Gideon Taiwo Faloye, Adedoyin Oluwayemisi Adeiye

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-21

Malaria is a major public health problem in Sub-Sahara Africa with over 95% of occurrence in Nigeria due to Plasmodium falciparum. This study assessed the prevalence of P. falciparum malaria infection among young adults of Babcock University, Ilishan- Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria using rapid diagnostic test and microscopic methods. A total of 5 ml venous blood was collected from each of the 200 consenting randomly recruited young adults (100 males and 100 females) without a history of anti-malaria drugs or herbal remedies in the preceding two (2) weeks. P. falciparum in participants' blood was detected using SD Bioline Malaria P. falciparum Histidin-Rich Protein II (HRP-II) Antigen Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit supplied by Standard Diagnostics, INC and also by conventional microscopic examination of Giemsa stained thin and thick blood films. The outcome of this study shows that the prevalence of P. falciparum malaria infection among young adults of Babcock University as detected by RDT and microscopic method is 0.5% and 86.0%, respectively. The microscopic method appears to be a more reliable diagnostic tool for malaria infection than the rapid diagnostic method with a sensitivity of 86.19%. P. falciparum malaria infection was significantly higher (P<0.05) among the female participants (47.5%) than their male counterparts (38.5%). And it was also found to be highest among participants within 16-20 years age range (45.5%). 87.8% of the participants who tested positive had a malaria parasite density (MPD) of one plus (+), while the rest (12.2%) had a malaria parasite density of two pluses (++). The findings in this study show that P. falciparum malaria infection is common among young adults of Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria, therefore urgent and appropriate public health intervention is required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Distribution of Urogenital Schistosomiasis and Trichomoniasis in Oju LGA, Benue State, Nigeria

J. I. Chikwendu, T. S. Atsuwe, V. U. Obisike, O. E. Igbor

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-5

Schistosomiasis is a disease of medical importance. Schistosomiasis is prevalent in Nigeria where it is responsible for grave economic losses. A cross-sectional study was conducted from July, 2017- December, 2018 among school children from six (6) schools in Oju local government area of Benue State Nigeria, in order to determine the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis with respect to sex, age and location. A total of 300 samples were collected and examined with the aid of a compound microscope (X10) and (X40) for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs. The mean age of children that participated in the study was 15.32 years. Of the 300 children tested, 60 (20%) were infected. Urogenital schistosomiasis prevalence in males 38 (63%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in females 22 (36.7%). Of the six (6) schools visited, Government Secondary School Amenka-owo had the highest prevalence rates of 18 (30%), p>0.05. Among the different age groups, 11-15 years had the highest prevalence of 32 (53.3%), while significantly lower prevalence p<0.05 was recorded in those 21 years and above 6 (10%). In addition to Schistosoma parasite, Trichomonasvaginalis was also recorded in children 16years of age and above. Urinary schistosomiasis is a major public health problem affecting both males and females of different age groups andin different localities in Oju Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nematicidal Activity of Aloe vera Extract/Exudates on Root-knot Nematodes (M. incognita) Associated with Tomato (Lycopersicun esculentum) Plant Growth Parameters

Omammegbe Abdulrahman, Abanise Mary Titilayo, Ibrahim Auwalu Alhaji, Joseph Nagyal Mamani, Eshiwe Emmanuel Onyekachi

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-5

Nematicidal activity of Aloe vera plant at different concentration treatments were evaluated to determine its effect on root-knot nematode. The study was conducted in the Federal College of Forestry Jos, Plateau State of Nigeria between March and May, 2017. Nematicidal activity of Aloe vera was tested on tomato associated with M. incognita using 80 mg/ml, 70 mg/ml, 60 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml and 40 mg/ml. Three (3) blocks in area of about 300 m2 partitioned into five (5) plots with 1m alley each in-between plots and blocks and each plot was about 50 m2 for one (1) treatment between the tested nematicidal extract. Modified Baermann Funnel Method was used for nematode extractions and 70% ethanol was used for Aloe vera analysis. A complete randomized design (CRD) was used and data collected were analyzed using analysis of variances (ANOVA) to determine the significant differences. The results showed that there was a significant different at p≤0.05 level in nematode population and improved tomato growth and yield, the highest concentration in reducing the population numbers of the M. incognita, improving tomato plant growth parameters is the 80 mg/ml and the order of performance are 80 mg/ml > 70 mg/ml > 60 mg/ml > 50 mg/ml > 40 mg/ml respectively. 80 mg/ml treatments on tomato plant height in week one results in (18.00) which was higher in week three (26.00) when compared with 40 mg/ml treatments in week one (8.00) and week three (13.00). Finally, the results obtained could be an outcome of the nematicidal contents of the extracts in inhibiting nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita proliferation and can be used as a bio-control agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Vectors of Public Health Importance in Major Dumpsites in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria

Chikaire Ndamzi Ike-Ihunwo, LeBari Barine Gboeloh

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-9

Vectors are important factors in the transmission of many parasitic diseases. The determination of the prevalence of vectors of public health importance in major dumpsites in Port Harcourt metropolis was investigated. Eight major dumpsites within the metropolis were randomly selected and the study was conducted within August 2018 and June 2019.  Record on age of the dumpsites were obtained from the regulating agency and composition of dumpsites was made by physical observation. The composition of the dumpsites ranged from plastic cans, decomposing food, metals, cartons, bottles, faecal matters to plant materials. Vectors were collected using Sweep nets, sticky traps, water traps and manual hand picking with gloves and forceps. Vectors of public health importance collected from the dumpsites included Chrysomya megacephala (Family: Calliphoridae), Musca domestica (Family: Muscidae), Anopheles spp. (Family: Culicidae) Aedes spp (Family: Culicidae), Periplanata Americana (Family: Culicidae) and Blatta orientalis (Family: Culicidae). Out of the 360 vectors collected, 12.5%, 49.4%, 5.3%, 18.9%, 10.5% and 3.1% were C. megacephala, M. domestica, Anopheles spp, Aedes spp, P. americanus and B. orientalis repectively. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in the prevalence of vectors in relation to the dumpsites investigated. M. domestica was the most prevalent vector. High prevalence of vectors of public health importance was recorded in all the eight dumpsites investigated. Hence, there is a possibility of a potential high risk of transmission of gastrointestinal helminths and malaria among residence within the dumpsites, scavengers and sanitation workers of the waste management agency. Proper waste management strategy, regular fumigation exercise and health education for sanitation workers and scavengers will curb the breeding of vectors.

Open Access Review Article

Congenital Toxoplasmosis: Present and Future Challenges: A Review

Nataala U. Shehu, Kumurya A. Sale, Kabiru Mohammed, Mauhammad K. Garba, Nura Bunza, Ahmed M. Ganau, Ashcroft O. Fumilayo

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-10

Recent findings shows that decrease of vertical transmission and clinical sequelae may be as result of screening and treatment for toxoplasmosis. Reduction of T. gondii infection is directly connected with early treatment. In this way, laboratory diagnostic techniques should direct for early identification of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis. Detecting the infection early and giving proper treatment immediately, may help reduce some of the severe health outcomes associated with the toxoplasmosis. Presently polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most commonly used and also the most accepted laboratory method employed for the diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis during gestation period. The gold standard for the diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis is the detection IgG antibody in the serum. In addition, in-depth epidemiological studies are needed to inform the design of regional strategies and to guide implementation of control programs involving both the medical and veterinary sectors.