Open Access Original Research Article

High Prevalence of Human Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections in an Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) Camp in Nasarawa State, Nigeria: A Cross-sectional Study

Kwaru Ayuba, Victor Oti, Amali Okwoli, Marina Ioannou, Ibrahim Chindo

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-8

Human gastrointestinal parasites are significant agents of intestinal infections with public health implication worldwide. Internally displaced persons (IDPs) are known for their vulnerability to myriad of parasitic agents due to their socioeconomic conditions especially in Nigeria. However, paucity of published information about gastrointestinal parasitic infection exists among refugees in Nigeria. In a cross-sectional study, the prevalence and probable factors of human gastrointestinal parasitic infections in a IDPs camp in Nasarawa State, Nigeria was evaluated. Faecal samples were collected from 332 recruited refugees who gave informed consent and completed self-administered questionnaires. The samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques. Overall, 264 (79.5%) were infected with human gastrointestinal parasites. The parasite species identified and their respective prevalence were Entamoeba histolytica (23.5%), Schistosoma mansoni (22.0%), Ascaris lumbricoides (19.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (14.4%), Hookworm (6.1%), Hymenolepis nana (6.1%), Giardia lamblia (1.1%) and Taenia species (1.1%). All the risk factors studied were not statistically significant to the parasitic infections (p> 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study to find cases of dual and multiple parasitic infections among IDPs in Central Nigeria. Our findings have enhanced the epidemiologic understanding of gastrointestinal parasitic infections among IDPs in Nigeria with implications for continual surveillance and advanced control measures.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Captopril on Some Peptides of Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) in Plasmodium berghei-Infected Mice

U. R. Mahmud, A. M. Abdulazeez, M. Bala, M. K. Abubakar, B. Kurfi

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-10

Aim: There are conflicting reports on the effect of peptides of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) on the pathogenesis of malaria infection. Captopril is a common antihypertensive drug that inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), a critical peptide of RAS, and its effect on the pathological process of malaria is just beginning to unfold. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of captopril on parasitemia, ACE, angiotensin II, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) levels in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

Methodology: Twenty-five mice divided into: Group 1 (control), Group 2 (Malaria control), Groups 3, 4 and 5 (Treated with 0.03 mg/kg lonart, 0.03 and 0.09 mg/kg captopril, respectively) were treated for 14 days. On the 15th day, they were sacrificed to obtain the blood and kidneys. The concentration of ACE and Ang II in serum and kidneys; and expression of ACE and AT1R in kidneys were assayed using standard protocols.

Results: There was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in parasitemia in all treated mice compared to malaria control mice, and by the 14th day, the parasitemia level in mice given 0.09 mg/kg captopril and 0.03 mg/kg lonart was not different (P>0.05) from control. The ACE and angiotensin II levels in serum and kidneys of malaria-infected mice increased significantly (P<0.05), but decreased (P<0.05) when given 0.03 mg/kg lonart, and both doses of captopril. With respect to gene expression, the ACE and AT1R mRNA were upregulated (P<0.05) in the kidneys of diseased mice, but treatment with captopril resulted in a dose-dependent decrease (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Captopril inhibits Plasmodium parasite; and this may be due to its ability to down-regulate ACE and AT1R expression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modified Diphasic Liver Infusion Agar: Selective Medium for the Axenic Cultivation of Entamoeba histolytica

Zuhair W. Dardona, Adnan I. Al-Hindi, Samia Boussaa

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-6

A modified diphasic liver infusion agar medium was prepared manually in the laboratory in order to be used for culturing Entamoeba histolytica in vitro. This medium is a good alternative for the commercial one and has the main ingredients for the parasite's growth.  E. histolytica was successfully cultured in the present study and PCR technique was performed to confirm Entamoeba species. The growth of E. histolytica trophozoites had started in the third day post-cultivation and reached its highest rate in the seventh. Then the growth started to decrease until the trophozoites completely disappeared after 12-14 days post-cultivation. Cryopreservation using glycerol 10% (V/V) was used in order to preserve trophozoites for later cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Gastro-intestinal Parasitic Infections among Patients in Bafia Health District, Center Region Cameroon: A Retrospective Study

Djoukzoumka Signaboubo, Vincent Khan Payne, Yamssi Cedric, Ibrahim Mahamat Alhadji Moussa, Etung Kollins Nfor, Ngangnang Ghislain Romeo, Leonelle Megwi, Mpoame Mbida

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-9

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections among patients consulting at the Laboratory of Biomedical Analysis of the District Hospital in Bafia, Catholic Health Center of Gondon and Sub-Divisional Medical Centers of Bokito and Ombessa.

Study Design: The retrospective study conducted covered available data from January 2007 to December 2014. Records of patients referred to the Laboratory of these Health Centers were manually reviewed for gastrointestinal infections. Data were recorded according to age, occupation, sex and marital status of patients and the type of parasite involved, and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 17.0).

Results and Discussion: A total of 35 587 stool samples were analyzed using the direct examination method between January 2007 and December 2014. For the past eight years, 3 species of protozoan and 7 species of helminths were identified with a prevalence of 07.23% and 15.7% respectively and an overall prevalence of 22.83%. Protozoans as Entamoeba histolytica (22.27%), Giardia lamblia (4.97%) and Cryptosporidium spp (1.23%) as well as helminthes as Ascaris spp (24.1%), Schistosoma spp (16.17%), Hookworm (11.55%), Taenia spp (11.55%), Trichiuris trichura (7.06%), Strongyloides stercoralis (2.12%) and Enterobius vermicuralis (0.59%) were recorded.

Conclusion: From these results, both preventive and curative campaigns should be encouraged and intensified in the study area so that the scourge of gastro-intestinal infection should no longer be an issue of public health importance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ovicidal Effect of Tannins-containing Extract of Sesbania grandiflora Leaves against Goat’s Parasitic Nematode Egg

M. Azrul-Lokman, W. Arirop, K. Poungpong, S. Jittapalapong, S. Prasanpanich

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-8

Aims: In this study, sesbania (Sesbania grandiflora) leaves were used as an experimental material. Tannins was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The ovicidal effect of this plant leaves was determined against goat’s parasitic nematode egg using egg hatch assay.

Study Design: Completely Randomized Design (CRD).

Place and Duration of Study: Nematode eggs collection and in vitro trial were conducted at Animal Physiology Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture of Kasetsart University in Bangkok, Thailand between June 2016 and December 2016.

Methodology: Two type of extracts; aqueous and ethanolic extracts were prepared prior to the in vitro trial. Six increasing 2-fold concentration of both extracts; from 0.075 to 2.4 mg/ml were used against mixed sample of nematode’s egg from naturally infected goats. Gridded petri dishes containing a mixture of egg suspension with tested solution; both extracts and control were incubated for 27°C for 24hrs and 48hrs, respectively. At the end of each incubation period, hatched and unhatched eggs were counted and egg hatching inhibition rate was determined.

Results: Total tannins in this plant was measured at 1.08% of 95% dry matter (DM). Both extracts showed significant inhibition effect for both incubation periods (P<0.05). Highest concentration used for aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed more than 80% and 60% of hatching inhibition after 48hrs, respectively. Significantly higher inhibition rate was observed for aqueous extract compared to ethanolic extract (P<0.05). For aqueous extract, the maximum inhibition rate was observed at 85.33% for the highest concentration after 48hrs which is almost similar to anthelmintic efficacy of oxfendazole used as positive control (96.67%).

Conclusion: This study showed that S. grandiflora leaves can be used as natural anthelmintic for goats since their ovicidal effect against nematode’s egg was scientifically proven.