Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Malaria and Hepatitis B Virus Infections among Pregnant Women Attending Federal Medical Center, Owerri

A. E. Abah, H. Onoja, F. I. Amadi

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-5

Background: Malaria and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in pregnancy are of great public health importance, jeopardizing the outcome of pregnancy, affecting mother, foetus and new-born babies.

Objectives: This cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of malaria and hepatitis B virus infections among pregnant women attending the Federal Medical Center, Owerri.

Methods: Three hundred maternal blood samples were collected into anticoagulant bottles. Blood samples collected were used to determine malaria parasitaemia and HBV. Malaria parasitaemia was determined using thick and thin films stained with Giemsa staining techniques while HBV was determined using Labcon Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) test strip.

Results: Out of a total of 300 blood sample examined, 110(36.66%) were positive for malaria while 17(5.67%) were positive for HBV and 10 (3.33%) had co-infection. The age group 15-24 yrs had the highest prevalence of infections (45.76%) of malaria followed by 35-44 yrs (38.33%) while 45-54ys had least (30.43%). Although there was a difference in prevalence, it was not statistically significant (χ²=4.178, p=0.243, df=3).In Hepatitis B infection, age group 15-24 yrs (16.95%) had the highest prevalence of infection, followed by 25-34 yrs (4.17%) while 45-54 yrs recorded no infection and there was a statistically significant difference in prevalence across the age groups (χ²=18.581, p=0.000, df=3). The prevalence of malaria and HBV co-infection based on age indicated that 15-24 yrs had the highest prevalence 8.47% followed by 35-44 yrs (2.67%) while 25-34 yrs (1.67%) had the least prevalence.

Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in the study area and the effects could be fatal to mother, foetus and the new-born. HBV infection, Malaria and HBV co-infection were found to be relatively high. Therefore, there is the need to ensure malaria interventions such as the provision of ITNs and intermittent Preventive treatment in pregnancy for malaria during pregnancy for pregnant women. Also, regular HBV vaccination, especially for the sexually active people, is advocated in the state.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Malaria Parasitaemia and Genotype among Residents of Orita Obele, Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria

O. B. Awosolu, M. C. David, A. O. Lawal, F. A. Ikuesan

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-5

Background and Aim: Malaria is a major disease of public health concern which requires adequate epidemiological information for proper management and control in Nigeria. This research was carried out to determine the pattern of malaria parasitaemia and genotype among residents of Orita Obele in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in which blood samples were collected from volunteer individuals visiting Orita Obele Primary Health care Center in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. Relevant information such as sex and age was obtained from their hospital record and a well-designed questionnaire. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared and microscopy was used to establish malaria infection, parasite identification and density. 

Results: A total of 185 patients were examined, out of which 132 (71.4%) were positive for malaria infection. Male had higher prevalence of 73.9% while female had lower prevalence 70.5%. Out of the 185 samples that were analyzed, 132 (71.4%) were positive for malaria infection. The age group 11 to 20 years had the highest prevalence of 78.3% while age group 41 to 50 years had the lowest prevalence of 66.7%. The genotype HbAA had the highest prevalence of malaria (74.6%) while genotype HbAS had the lowest malaria prevalence of (64.3%).

Conclusions: It is apparent that malaria is prevalent in this study area and as such urgent control measures should be deployed to arrest the situation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiology of Intestinal Polyparasitism among Primary School Pupils in Awe, Awe Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

I. A. Alaku, E. A. Omudu, N. G. Imande, J. O. Akor

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-6

Fecal samples were collected from 389 school children 200 (76.9%) boys and 189 (80.8%) girls and were examined by using direct smear, formalin-ether administration techniques socio-economic personal hygiene, environmental and demographic information were collected by using self-administered questionnaire. The overall 389 (78.7) of the children were found to be infected by at least one parasite species. Of this, 12.2% had multiple parasites. The overall prevalence infections were Trichuris trachiura (0.20%), Ascaris lumbricoides (48.6%), Hookworm (5.3%), Entamoeba histolytica (6.3%), Entamoeba coli (5.7%) and Ascaria lumbricoides + E. histolytica (7.5%). Parasitic infections between males and females showed significant differences in all the sexes (P<0.01). The percentage prevalence of Ascaria lumbricoides was high in children between 7 – 8 years and >12 years. For other intestinal parasites, no specific age relationship was established among the children. Findings from this study showed that using an unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, presence of other family members infected with intestinal parasitic infections (IPI), not washing vegetables before competition, absence of toilet in the house, not wearing shoes when outside, not cutting nails periodically and not washing hands before eating were significant risk factors associated with intestinal multiple parasites among these pupils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and Haemoglobin Genotype Distribution among Malaria Patients in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Gideon Yakusak Benjamin, Benjamin Bartholomew, Jabir Abdullahi, Liman Mubarak Labaran

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-7

Background and Aim: Malaria remains a disease of public health concern in Nigeria and other parts of Africa. It has caused the death of millions of people; especially pregnant women and children in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and haemoglobin genotype distribution among malaria patients in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in which 300 consenting participants were enrolled; blood samples were collected from them and screened for Plasmodium falciparum using Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) and microscopy for confirmation. Bio-data and other relevant information were obtained using structured questionnaire and analyzed statistically. The haemoglobin (Hb) genotypes of all the malaria positive patients were determined.

Results: A total prevalence of 21.7% was obtained in this study. Malaria prevalence was higher (29.1%) in participants who were not using insecticides at home compared to those who were using insecticide at home (17.4%). The P value was significant and the odds ratio showed a significant positive association (p=0.018, OR=0.512, CI=0.294-0.894). Participants with HbAA genotype had the highest percentage of malaria 76.9% (50/65), followed by those with HbAS 18.5% (12/65), HbAC 3.1% (2/65) and HbSS 1.5% (1/65) having the least.

Conclusion: Apparently, the use of insecticides to kill mosquitoes around the home helps to reduce malaria prevalence. The haemoglobin genotypes HbAS, HbAC and HbSS may be protective against the development of malaria, as their percentages in this study were relatively low compared to HbAA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution and Diversity Land Snails in Human Inhabited Landscapes of Trans Nzoia County, Kenya

Mukhwana Dennis Wafula

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-6

The study evaluated the distribution and some ecological aspects of land snails in croplands of Trans Nzoia, Kenya from January to December 2016. Snails were collected monthly during the study period and sampled using a combination of indirect litter sample methods and timed direct search. Snails collected were kept in labeled specimen vials and transported to the National Museums of Kenya for identification using keys and reference collection. In order to understand environmental variables that affect soil snail abundance; canopy, soil pH and temperature was measured per plot while humidity and rainfall data was obtained from the nearest weather stations to the study sites. A total of 2881 snail specimens (29 species from 10 families) were recorded. The families Subulinidae, Charopidae and Urocyclidae were found to be dorminant. The most abundant species was Opeas lamoense (12% of the sample). Land use significantly (p< 0.05) affected snail distribution, where abundance of land snails was highest in the wetlands, natural forest and plantation forests. Snail abundance was significantly positively correlated with temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, campy and litter. The area has high species composition, diversity and richness but agricultural activities may affect the overall species richness. Further studies should be conducted to determine whether some of these snails are vectors for trematodes and possible epidemiology of schistosomiasis in the region.