Open Access Original Research Article

Ascaridia galli Protect Salmonella typhimurium from Antibiotics

E. I. Sop Foka, J. Yondo, B. Katte, C. N. Noumedem Anangmo, Mpoame Mbida

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-5

Background: Salmonella bacteria and A. galli worms cause serious illness, pathological defects and economic losses even in modern poultry production systems. This study was undertaken to elucidate the antibiotic sensitivity of Salmonella typhimurium when associated to A. galli.

Materials and Methods: Salmonella typhimurium LT2 was incubated in vitro in the presence and in the absence of A. galli, with three antibiotics: amoxicillin, cefepime and chloramphenicol.

Results: In the presence of A. galli worm the antibiotics showed a significant reduction in the ability to inhibit Salmonella typhimurium growth. Treatment of salmonellosis becomes less efficient when the bacteria are associated with A. galli worm.

Conclusion: A. galli may somehow protect the bacteria from the antibiotics through unknown mechanisms. However, further work is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms involved in the protection of A. galli.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Helminthiasis in Dairy Goat Breeds within Trans Nzoia County, Kenya

Mukhwana Dennis Wafula

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-7

This study the examined feacal sampled from 1392 goats from Trans Nzoia area in Kenya for Gastro-Intestinal Helminths (GIH). A total of 642 (46.1%) were found positive for GIH. Trematodes were 22.1%, cestodes 12.6% and nematodes were the least prevalent at 11.4% with a mixed infection of 13.2%. Trematodes detected were Fasciola spp. (14.5%) and Paramphistomum spp. (7.1%). Only Moniezia expansa (12.4%) and Moniezia benedeni (9.2%) were detected cestodes while the nematodes were Strongyloides spp. (5.1%), Trichostrongylus spp. (2.6%), Haemonchus spp. (2.4%), Trichuris spp. (1.5%), Oesophagostomum spp. (1.0%) and Cooperia spp. (0.6%). There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in the infections between breeds with Saanen and Barbari having higher prevalence of the GI helminthes. Meanwhile East African had higher prevalence of trematodes, cestodes and nematodes while highest mixed infections occurred in Barbari. Young goats aged < 3 months were heavily infected with all groups of helminthes than the older goats aged > 3 months. In terms of seasonal differences, rainy season had higher prevalence of all groups of GI helminthes except mixed infection than dry seasons. The present research provided the prevalence pattern and risk factors associated with gastrointestinal helminthiasis in the tropical area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Schistosomiasis among the Bavaido Village Peasants and the Residents of Tshopo River at Kisangani- DR. Congo

Briston Mongita Esol’e, Chantal Zingabako Ngbingina, Alberic Anagwatalibe Kota, Honoré Mopaya Pakowe, Flavien Mongita Etisomba Likoke

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-8

Schistosomiasis is a pathology, today called Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD). It is a chronic parasitic disease caused by flatworms called Schistosoma or bilharzia, transmitted to humans by a freshwater mollusc. This disease is the 2nd most common parasitic disease in the world. According to the WHO, bilharzia is endemic in 76 countries, 42 of which are situated in Africa. 700 million people are exposed to it worldwide and of the 207 million people infected, the vast majority (85%) live in Africa.

This study was conducted 24 kilometres from the city of Kisangani on the old Buta road in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The population was made up of people living in the Bavaido village and the camp on the banks of the Tshopo River and aged between 0 and 59 years. A sampling of 194 urine and stool samples, 84 of which were taken from the inhabitants of Bavaido and 110 from the inhabitants of the camp, was used to carry out this investigation. This descriptive - cross-sectional study carried out from October 29 to November 19, 2018, aims to determine the prevalence of Schistosomiasis in the two settings of our study. At the end of our investigations, we observed that: urine samples revealed 2.4% positive Schistosoma haematobium in Bavaido versus 54.5% positive in the camp, while stool samples revealed 4.8% positive Schistosoma mansoni in Bavaido versus 7.3% positive in the camp and the age group of 0 - 9 years was more affected with 43.55% of positive results and the female sex predominates with 56.45% positive cases. Furthermore, the predominance of haematuria samples was more prevalent in females (64.7%) than in males (35.3%), making medical interventions appropriate for this population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analytic Survey of the Periodicity of the Blood Microfilariae among the Donors of Blood Consulted to the General Hospital of References of Buta in Republic Democratic of Congo

Briston Mongita Esol’e, Honoré Mopaya Pakowe, Alberick Anagwetalibe Kota

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-8

Non-Governmental Organizations in collaboration with the National Program for the Fight against Onchocerciasis ‘‘PNLO’’, are well engaged in the fight against filariasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

This study, conducted at the Buta General Reference Hospital, aims to search for the Loa loa microfilaria in blood donors during the night in order to verify the theory that this microfilaria species was exclusively observed during the day (at daytime periodicity).

The study involved 45 donors (family and volunteer donors) parasitized by microfilariae. The majority of them were Loa loa, the predominance of which came from night-time collection between 18:00 and 22:00. Donors from the primary activity sector (agriculture, hunting and fishing) [81.5%], those in the 18-27 age group (37.1%) and men (63%) were more infested with microfilaria. Life in rural areas (66.7%) was one of the factors favouring microfilaria infestation, taking into account the above-mentioned vital activities of the population living there. The markers detected in donors outside the microfilaria tested were hepatitis B antibodies (HBsAg) (6.5%) and HIV antibodies (8%).

We have observed that the periodicity of the parasite (Loa loa) which is (known) diurnal can be reversed depending on the activity of the parasitized person; depending on whether he or she works during the day or at night. There is also the hypothesis that the period of activity of the vector selects the periodicity of the parasite.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Rodent-borne Parasitic Zoonosis: Public Health Risk to Humans

Tijjani Mustapha, Abdullahi Muhammad Daskum, Roslaini Abd Majid, Ngah Zasmy Unyah

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-15

Rodent species such as Rattus rattus diardii and Rattus norvegicus are invasive species and potential reservoirs of significant pathogens of humans. The zoonotic infections are among the most common on earth and are responsible for over 60% of all human infectious diseases. This is due to several factors such as urbanization, poor sanitation and climate change across the globe, that has led to change or increase the occurrence of rodent-borne diseases. This review summarizes the public health importance of some rodent-borne parasitic zoonosis. Many parasitic pathogens (Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba spp., Hymenolepis spp., Giardia spp.) that are directly or indirectly transmitted by rodents to humans have a serious consequence in human health. Furthermore, human-rodent interaction has substantially contributed to the transmission of zoonotic parasitic infections to humans. The conclusion in this review is that rodents play an important role in transmission of several parasitic diseases to humans. Therefore, it is crucial to pay adequate attention on control of rodents and surveillance.