Open Access Systematic Review Article

Distribution of Acanthamoeba Genotypes in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Mousa Motavallihaghi, Manoochehr Karami, Khadijeh Rahmati, Pegah Ameri, Fariborz Etemadifar, Amir Hossein Maghsood

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-10

Introduction: Despite many studies that have been done in different parts of Iran, comprehensive information on the epidemiology of Acanthamoeba is not available. Therefore, this review was conducted to collect the reports from studies accompanied in different parts of the country as a systematic study.

Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional studies that surveyed the prevalence and genotype of Acanthamoba in Iran were included. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using STROBE checklist. Heterogeneity of the studies was explored using a Chi-squared test at the 5% significance level. Publication bias was assessed using Begg's and Egger's tests. Stata software version 11 was employed for data analysis. Results were reported using a random effect model with 95% CI.

Results: Out of 2234 articles and 715 abstracts of conferences, finally, 42 articles were selected. Six studies were conducted between 2000-2010 years and 36 studies were conducted between 2011 until 2017. The prevalence rate of Acanthamoeba was 39% from 2000 to 2010 and reached 43% during 2011-2017. Also, the prevalence of contamination in human specimens was 24% and in environmental samples was 45% and 48% in water samples. Reported genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran include T2, T3, T4,T5,T11,T13and T15 which the most common genotype of Acanthamoeba was T4.

Conclusion: The results of this review showed that the prevalence of Acanthamoeba was not only high in various regions of Iran, but also has been increased in various environmental sources in recent years.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-Demographic Factors and Attitudes Influencing the Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis among Pregnant Women in Buea, Sw Cameroon

Judith Lum Ndamukong-Nyanga, Nchangsen Jacqueline, Dinayen Flavia, Ngum Catherine Ndamukong, Desdemona Njabi Nji

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-11

The present study aims to determine the socio-demographic factors and attitudes influencing the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Buea, SW Cameroon. Toxoplasma gondii also called T. gondii is derived from the Greek words toxon, plasma and gondii which mean bow, creature and the African rodent “gundi” respectively. It is a protozoan parasite that can infect all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Due to the effect of congenital toxoplasmosis on the fetus and the child after birth, the fact that routine screening for Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy is oftenly not available in our health settings, it is important to examine the situation of pregnant women in Buea. This study was conducted in the Buea, found in Fako Division, South West Region of Cameroon. The study was a cross sectional study carried from March 30th to June 30th 2018 among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) in the Solidarity Clinic, Buea. Out of the 314 participants, 48 (15.29%) of pregnant women who had cats in homes and neighborhood were found to be positive for T. gondii. Among these ladies who had a habit of eating raw or undercooked meat, 34 (10.83%) of them were seropositive for T. gondii infection. Seroprevalence among women who had contact with soil was 26 (8.28%). The study concluded that Toxoplasma gondii infection appears to be a public health concern and the prevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women attending antenatal in the solidarity clinic molyko is 32.5%. Although a bit lower as compared with those reported in other regions in Cameroon, prompt intervention is needed to improve on the health of mother and baby.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parasitic Contamination in Ready-to-Eat Salads in the Accra Metropolis, Ghana

Papa Kofi Amissah-Reynolds, Denis Dekugmen Yar, Vincent Aboagye, Isaac Monney, Francis Nuamah, Emmanuel Awimbe Ndego

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-11

Background: Globally, vegetables have become an essential part of the human diet due to their high nutritional benefits. They are usually eaten raw or partially cooked and therefore could become vehicles for transmission of food-borne illness. This study therefore assessed parasitic contamination of ready-to-eat vegetable salads from street vended foods in the Accra Metropolis of Ghana.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the level of parasitic contamination of ready-to-eat vegetable salads in the Accra Metropolis, Ghana. A total of 313 ready-to-eat vegetable salads were randomly sampled, washed with physiological saline solution using concentration method and microscopically examined.

Results: Of the 313 samples examined, about a third (32%) was contaminated with at least one parasite. Overall, twelve genera of parasites were recovered with Giardia lamblia (6.7%), Entamoeba histolytica (6.4%) and Moniezia spp. (4.2%) predominating. Other parasites detected included Trichuris trichiura (3.8%) and Entamoeba coli (3.5%), with the rest recording low prevalence (<2%).

Conclusion: The presence of intestinal parasites point to a risk of food-borne illnesses from consumption of street-vended vegetable salads. Vegetable salads were found to be a potential source of parasitic infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiprotozoal Effects of Aloe vera Leaves Extract against Experimentally Induced Coccidiosis in Broiler Chickens

M. Musa Isah, S. Gide, A. Haruna, G. Anas

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-7

The anti-coccidian properties of Aloe vera were investigated and its therapeutic effect was compared with that of conventional drugs (amprolium powder) on broiler chickens. The broiler was divided into four groups of 15 birds each. Group A served as control and were not infected while B, C, and D were infected with 0.2 ml of coccidian oocyte each orally at 4 weeks old. After the manifestation of the clinical signs of coccidiosis, on day 5 post-infection, the birds in group B were treated with 1.2 g/kg feed with crude extract of Aloe vera, while, group C with amprolium hydrochloride at 3.25 g/liter drinking water; and group D was not treated and served as infected control. All treatments were done once daily for seven days. The oocyte count obtained from faeces of group B and C broiler reduced significantly (P<0.05) from 120 oocytes at 5 days post-infection to 18. There was no reduction of oocyte count in-group D. The result showed that Aloe vera was able to reduce significantly (P<0.05) the number of the oocyte, in comparison to amprolium in broiler chickens infected with coccidiosis.

Open Access Review Article

Visceral Leishmaniasis Treatment and Its Challenges

Israt Jahan Khan Chowdhury, Md Fazlul Haque

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-16

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is generally termed as kala-azar, black fever, and Dumdum fever and it is known to be the most severe form of leishmaniasis. Without any proper diagnosis and treatment it causes high fatality rate. It is a disease generally caused by protozoan parasites of genus Leishmania. Miltefosine is the first oral treatment for this disease. The cure rate of miltefosine in Phase III clinical trials is 95%. This review is focused on the drugs available for the treatment of VL, their effectiveness and future challenges.