Open Access Original Research Article

Management of Root-knot Disease in Okra with Poultry Manure and Leaf Extracts of Senna alata

Idorenyin Asukwo Udo, Aniefiok Effiong Uko, Daniel Offiong Etim

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-10

This research was conducted with the aim of evaluating the nematicidal effect of aqueous leaf extracts of Senna alata, and poultry manure against Meloidogyne incognita on okra (cv. Clemson spineless). The concentration of S. alata leaf extract (0.20, 0.40, 0.60, 0.80 g/ml) and a control (0.00 g/ml) were combined with poultry manure (0.00 t/ha) being the control and (15.00, 20.00 t/ha,) applied before planting of okra seeds. Each okra plant was inoculated with 5,000 larvae of M. incognita. The plants were grown to fruiting stage. The results indicated that application rate of the poultry manure at 15.00 t/ha and 20.00 t/ha and leaf extract of S. alata concentration of 0.60 and 0.80 g/ml significantly (p < 0.05) reduced galling relative to their respective controls. The susceptibility status of the okra cultivar was changed from highly susceptible to resistant in all plants treated with the combination of 0.80 g/ml of leaf extract and 20 t /ha poultry manure. Also, application of the leaf extract alone changed the gall index from 5.00 to 2.00. The best interaction was observed at the application rate of poultry manure at 20 t/ha with 0.60 g/ml leaf extract, where the resistant status was reduced from susceptible (GI=5.00) to resistant (GI=2.25). However, the amended okra plant and application of leaf extract concentration significantly enhanced plant growth, number of leaves, shoot dry weight and root fresh weight accumulation. When 0.60 g/ml of the plant extract was combined with 20 t/ha of the poultry manure, growth and yield of okra plant were highest. The S. alata leaf extract at 0.80 g/ml was phytotoxic as the okra plant showed reduction in growth attributes and pod yield. Therefore, this eco-friendly approach in the management of root –knot disease of okra could be adopted after proper identification of the nematicidal constituents of the leaf extract of S. alata and field trials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Climate Change Scenarios on Fasciola gigantica Risk in Semi-arid West Africa: A Case Study of Sokoto State, Nigeria

Isah Hamisu, Heiko Balzter, Jörg Kaduk

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 11-25

Aims: Fascioliasis is a parasitic and zoonotic liver disease that reduces the health and productivity of infected cattle and sheep. In recent years, an observed increase in the prevalence of the disease in Western Africa has been attributed to the changes in regional climatic conditions. This study aims to employ climate predictions to predict future seasonal infection risk in Sokoto State, Nigeria and provide a basis for targeted active disease monitoring to inform the need for control measures.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Geography, School of Science and Engineering, University of Leicester, between November 2014 and October 2018.

Methodology: This study employs the Ollerenshaw index which is commonly used and was modified by Yilma and Malone (1999) to be more suitable for forecasting annual disease risk for Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Relationships of the annual F. gigantica infection risk between historic climate data from WorldClim for 1970-2000 and future climate scenarios from HADGEM2-ES based on the IPCC greenhouse gas emission scenarios RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 from 2050 to 2070 are analysed based on the observed relationships between disease prevalence and climatic conditions in the region.

Results: This study reports on the first analysis of the future seasonal infection risk and shows that seasonal infection risk is expected to spread across Sokoto State from a small patch of outbreaks observed in recent years to larger regions under future climate scenarios. Furthermore, the southern part of the study region exhibits the greatest risk of outbreaks due to its higher rainfall compared to other provinces of Nigeria. This pattern is consistent with the prevalence record obtained during field work in the region in 2016.

Conclusion: This study provides a basis upon which active disease monitoring can be targeted on highlighted areas where control measures need to be put in place.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Density of Malaria Parasites in Asymptomatic Students of the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria

I. A. Simon-Oke, D. Oladipo-King

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 26-31

Aim: Malaria is a complex disease that varies widely in epidemiology and clinical manifestation in different parts of the world. The research was carried out to evaluate the prevalence and intensity of malaria parasitaemia in asymptomatic students of the Federal university of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Post Graduate Research Laboratory, Department of Biology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria, between February and August, 2018.

Methodology:  A cross-sectional study was carried out in which blood samples were collected from students who volunteered.  Relevant information such as sex and age was obtained through a well-designed questionnaire. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared and microscopy was used to establish malaria infection, parasite identification and intensity.

Results: A total of 200 students were examined, out of which 153 (76.5%) were positive for malaria infection. Female had higher prevalence of 80.9% while male had lower prevalence 73.3%. The age group 21 to 25 years had the highest prevalence of 80.8% while age group <16 years had the lowest prevalence of 62.5%. The genotype HbAA had the highest prevalence and intensity of malaria (63.0%) while genotype HbAS had the lowest malaria intensity of 33.0%. HbSS recorded 0% of malaria parasites. Blood group AB had the highest prevalence and intensity of 86.7% while type O had the lowest parasitaemia of 54.5%.Students who live on campus had higher prevalence of 80.8% while those who live off campus had the least of 75.0%. Students who sleep under ITNs recorded higher prevalence of 87.5% while those who did not sleep under ITNs had 73.0%.

Conclusion: These findings further confirm the endemicity of malaria infection in the student population. Measures to control the transmission should be taken into consideration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Expression of TAg 5 in Relation to Presence of Trypanosome Parasites in Tsetse Flies Captured Kagarko LGA, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Adamu Shehu Usman, Auta Ishaya Kato, Mohammed Sanni Aliyu

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 32-39

Tsetse antigen 5 has an accession number of AF259957 and full length transcript of 926 bpconcealed by its complementary DNA without the poly (A) tail. It forms constituent of Tsetse saliva and is therefore injected into the mammalian host during Tsetse feeding and is also known to promote Trypanosome establishment in the host by modulating host’s immune response. This research studied the expression rate of Tsetse Antigen 5 using molecular tools and also the relationship between expression of Tsetse Antigen 5 and presence of Trypanosoma parasites in field captured flies in Kagarko Local Government Area, Kaduna state, Nigeria. During the study, fourty seven (47) Tsetse flies were caught within the period of four (4) months. Only thirty-eight (38) of the fourty seven (47) captured flies were dissected as nine died. Thus, percentage mortality of (19.15%). Dissection was done using the procedure described by the FAO Training manual for Tsetse control personnel and identification of Trypanosomes was done by direct observation of dissected organs under a microscope. RNA extraction was carried out using Trizol plus RNA extraction kit. Further to that, complementary DNA was synthesized from the extracted RNA which was used for reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using gene specific primers. 4 (10.53%) of the 38 Tsetse flies examined, had expression of Tsetse antigen 5 and also had the presence of Trypanosoma parasites. The expression of Tsetse antigen 5 in field captured flies infected with Trypanosoma parasites showed a positive relationship between presence of Trypanosoma parasites and the expression of Tsetse antigen 5 in field captured Tsetse. The expression of Tsetse antigen 5 is associated with that of Trypanosome infection in the captured flies corroborating thegene’s role in aiding successful transmission of Trypanosomes from vector to host.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Coccidia Infection among Desi and Broiler Chickens in Gombe Metropolis, Gombe State, Nigeria

A. Jemimah, T. I. James, E. Abba, A. Rejoice, Y. Lamogo

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 40-46

Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of chicken coccidiosis within Gombe metropolis, Gombe State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Faecal samples were collected from a total of 100 desi and broiler chickens randomly and examined for the presence of Eimerian oocyst.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Gombe metropolis, as from April-June, 2019.

Methodology: Floatation technique was employed to examine the presence of Eimerian oocyst. Parameters such as age, breed, management system and sites of sample collection were determined. Mean oocysts count was estimated using the modified McMaster counting technique.

Results: Out of the total 100 samples examined, 21 (21%) of the sample were positive for the Eimeria oocyst. Higher prevalence was recorded in desi birds with 21 (42%) positive. No positive case was observed 0(0%) in broiler birds. Chi square test shows that young chickens with 14 (28%) showed significantly higher prevalence than the Adult chickens with7 (14%). Chickens reared extensively were found to be affected 16 (64%) more than those kept under semi intensive system 16 (64%).The mean oocysts count per gram of faeces was higher (3246.40±817.70SD OPG) in young than adult (3035.70±587.16SD OPG) chickens. The management system revealed higher mean oocysts count per gram of droppings with 3390.60±714.66SD OPG in birds raised under extensive management system than the 2490.00±232.92SD OPG in birds kept under semi-intensive management system.

Conclusion: The presence of poultry coccidiosis in the study area shows that the disease is endemic and there is need to embark on proper sanitation, good bio security measures and the use of intensive system of management should be adopted by farmers to reduce the effect of the disease.