Open Access Commentary

Underlying Challenges in the Path of Malaria Elimination: From India Perspective

Prabal Kumar Chourasia, Anand Verma, Prachi Pundir, Nikhil Shukla, Mehul Kumar Chourasia

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 9-12

India has shown its determination to achieve malaria elimination by 2030. However, several challenges, which might be potential roadblocks for malaria elimination goal. Among many, few are unreliability on existing reporting system; suitable surveillance methods; presence of asymptomatic parasitic carriers in the endemic population; and increasing insecticide resistance status among the malaria vectors. Nonetheless, stride towards malaria elimination is only achievable, if requisite emphasis would be given on the surveillance system, asymptomatic parasitic reservoirs and address of insecticide resistance status. Additionally, strengthening of the health infrastructure, adequate manpower at primary level and sustainable funding would also be required. The main objective of this paper is to highlight the existing major challenges in the path of Malaria Elimination in India by 2030.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Population Services International (PSI) Insecticide-treated Net (ITNs) Distribution on Malaria Prevalence in Pregnancy: A Case of Kimilili-Bungoma Sub-County, Kenya

Mukhwana Dennis Wafula

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-8

Insecticide-treated net (ITN) use is one of the most promising tools which have been shown to reduce the number of mosquito bites. Pregnant women and children less than five years have been specifically designated as high-risk groups, therefore need to be protected by effective personal protection. An intensive effort by Population Services International (PSI) to prevent malaria among vulnerable groups in Kenya by creating a mosquito ‘net culture’ was launched in 2002 sells highly subsidized nets. During the second half of the project (2004-2007) Population service international (PSI) increased its focus on the rural population. Despite these efforts, there is inadequate knowledge about the efficacy of net use in controlling malaria in the high-risk groups in the study area. This research determined the effects of PSI efforts in rural areas by assessing malaria prevalence among the pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Kimilili Sub-county (Bungoma County, Kenya) Hospital. The study used cross-sectional descriptive survey design. It was conducted between April to October 2017 and November 2017 to March 2018 which correspond to during rainy season and dry seasons respectively. The study recruited a total of 320 pregnant women were involved in the study. This was done before the rolling out of the whole family net coverage in twenty-three endemic counties. The information obtained should act as baseline data in the study area for future assessment of the impact of nationwide mass net distribution by the ministry of public health and sanitation. A structured questionnaire was administered to determine net use and a sample of blood was taken by finger prick method to determine the peripheral malaria parasitemia. Some fewer net users were malaria positive as compared to non-users suggesting that net uses were more protected. The course of malaria infection was noted depend on age and parity. This study demonstrates that net use reduce malaria and it’s associated anaemia in pregnancy. Also, dry seasons should not be perceived as low transmission periods because the results revealed that there was still a very significant transmission. It was also concluded that the multigravidae had developed more immunity as compared to the primi- and secundigravidae. It was recommended that the focus for educational programs should shift from net re-treatment to augmenting adherence. Coverage of entire populations will be required to accomplish large reductions of malaria in endemic areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Environmental Factors on Anopheline Larval Density

Ngozi Edith Onyemaechi, Yoila David Malann, Bernard-Malau Matur, Suleiman C. Hassan

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 13-24

Aim: This study aim is to determine the impact of environmental factors on mosquito larval density breeding within Lugbe and Gosa communities.

Study Design: Anopheline mosquito larval breeding sites were identified and characterized in both dry and wet seasons. Samplings were done in the morning (08:00-12:00 h) or afternoon (14:00-17:00 h) for about 45 mins at each larval habitat. Larval sampling was done using USAID approved techniques.

Place and Duration of Study: The Presidential Malarial initiative PMI/USAID - funded Insectary Laboratory at Nasarawa State University, Keffi/six (6) Months.

Methodology: Standard 350 mL dipper for large water bodies; ladle and plastic pipettes for small water bodies where dippers will not be effective, once forth nightly. Water collected were emptied into a white basin and checked for mosquito larvae. The Anopheline larvae were passed through a 100 mesh sieve and stored in labelled container. Environmental characteristics of each larval habitat were measured and recorded during larval collection. The Environmental data determined included habitat hydrological variables. Data on the amount of rainfall and humidity was gotten from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET). The temperature was determined in-situ using the mercury – in – glass thermometer.

Results: The study findings indicate that larval density was seen to be higher in Lugbe than in Gosa. This may not be unconnected to the fact that more habitats were found in Lugbe than in Gosa. Also, it is evident from the result that temperature, rainfall and relative humidity have various degrees of impact on larval density with temporary waters having higher larval density.  In this study, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) extracted two significant Principal Components with eigenvalues > 1, explaining about 69.50% and 61.23% of the total variance in corresponding larvae density.

Conclusion: This study, has shown that targeting the Anopheline larvae can be an effective tool in the fight against Malaria. Moreover, temperature, relative humidity and rainfall have a great effect on the Anopheline larval densities in Lugbe and Gosa areas of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT).

Open Access Original Research Article

Molluscs Intermediate Hosts of Distomes in Some Natural Cattle Water Points in Ngaoundere

Chahdini Gbambie Abass, Mamoudou Abdoulmoumini, Yamssi Cedric, Noumedem Anangmo Christelle Nadia, Moundou Aicha, Abah Samuel, Ndjonka Dieudonne, Mpoame Mbida

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 25-31

Background: Freshwater gastropod molluscs act as indispensable intermediate hosts in the life cycle of many species of distomes of medical and veterinary interest. The aim of this study was to carry out an inventory of molluscs in natural cattle water points and show their contamination and therefore their role as intermediate host.

Material and Methods: Between October to December 2018, a total of 1631 molluscs were collected in five natural cattle water points: Four lakes (Dang, Bini, Djalingo, Calmet) and one river (Mardock). The cattle water points were chosen based on their accessibility and the presence of vegetation around. Molluscs were collected manually by hand from shallow areas or using a rigid fine mesh net for deep areas. Molluscs were then placed in plastic jar and transported to the laboratory where they were identified.

Results: Four species of molluscs belonging to the subclass Pulmonata were identified. These species were Bulinus forskalii (Morelet, 1866), Bulinus globosus (Morelet, 1866), Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848) and Lymnaea natalensis (Krauss, 1848) with respective numbers of 244 (18%), 796 (58.4%), 293 (21.5%) and 298 (21.9%). Molluscs were not encountered in all the water points. All the four species of molluscs were collected in lake Dang, Bini and Djalingo.  Lake Dang showed great specific richness with the presence of four identified molluscs. In lake Bini two species of molluscs were encountered with a high density of B. pfeifferi. The frequency of infestations with Fasciola gigantica and Paramphistomum daubneyi varied in certain localities according to the species of molluscs present in the cattle water points. The majority of molluscs that were subjected to the cercariae emission test showed their infectious nature by emitting cercariae which were larval forms of the distomes.

Conclusion: It is very important to set up a mechanism for controlling molluscs in farming areas because these animals are the main sources parasites dissemination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Malaria Knowledge, Practices, Prevalence and Parasitaemia among Pregnant Women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

C. A. Imakwu, J. C. Ozougwu, J. E. Eyo, O. P. Okeke, G. U. Amana, S. C. Eziuzor, J. E. Ekeleme, M. I. Aniekwe

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 32-40

Aim: Malaria knowledge, practices, prevalence and parasitaemia among pregnant women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria was assessed in this present study.

Methodology: The study was carried out from April 2011 to March 2012 from two purposively selected hospitals in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty pregnant women were selected at random for this study. Venous blood samples were collected and Giemsa stained thin and thick blood films were used to determine malaria species and parasitaemia. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.

Results: In relation to knowledge on the cause of malaria, pregnant women that said it was by evil spirit recorded the highest number of 31(58.5%), while those that said it was caused by staying under the sun recorded the least number of 33(36.7%). In relation to practices, pregnant women that did not sleep in netted houses 51(42.0%) had higher numbers than those that slept in netted houses 99(41.4). Pregnant women with bushes around their houses (47.9%, n = 67) had higher prevalence than those whose houses were devoid of bushes (37.7%, n = 83). Pregnant women who had gutters around their houses had higher prevalence than those that do not have gutters around their houses. In relation to demographic factors, the age groups (15 – 20 yrs) had the highest prevalence 21(51.2%). This was followed by age groups 36 and above 8(42.9%), while the least was observed among age groups (26 – 30 yrs), 54(38.0%). In relation to education, it showed that pregnant women with no formal education had the highest prevalence 12(54.5%) and the least prevalence was observed among those with tertiary education 27(33.8%). The prevalence in relation to occupation showed that farmers had the highest prevalence 45(54.9%), followed by house wives 21(42.9%) and traders 49(40.2%). Students 8(25.0%) had the least prevalence. High parasitaemia was observed in all age groups. Moderate and severe prevalence was seen in (15 – 20 yrs) and (26 – 30 yrs) age groups. With regards to occupation, civil servants and artisans had light parasitaemia moderate and severe parasitaemia was seen among farmers and traders. In education, light parasitaemia was observed among women with no formal education while moderate and severe intensities were observed among women with primary education.

Conclusion: From the findings of this study, malaria continues to exert significant public health problem among pregnant women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This was found to be due to poor knowledge of the cause, mode of transmission and prevention measures of malaria among these pregnant women. Pregnant women are therefore advised to attend ante-natal care where malaria education should be carried out frequently which will help to reduce its morbidity and mortality.