Open Access Original Research Article

Malaria Incidence and Trend of Prevalence in and around Anger Gute Town, Western Ethiopia

Mebrate Dufera, Oljira Kenea, Geleta Tadele

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-8

Aim: The study aims to assess malaria incidence, trend of prevalence and associated risk factors in the study area.

Study Design: A cohort of 41,996 residents in five kebeles (the lowest government administrative unit) in 8,750 households was followed for malaria incidence study. Whereas, facility-based cross-sectional study was undertaken for malaria prevalence trend analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: In and around Anger Gute town, Western Ethiopia. The malaria incidence study was undertaken for seven months from June to December 2018.Whereas, the malaria prevalence trend analysis was carried out for six years from 2013-2018.

Methodology: To determine the malaria incidence, cases coming from purposefully selected five kebeles to three health posts and one health center were diagnosed in which a total of 462 respondents participated. Parasitological data were collected using malaria parasite diagnostic tools. Structured questionnaires were used to assess the malaria incidence associated risk factors. In addition, to determine malaria trend prevalence retrospective malaria data were taken from Anger Gute health center. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.0. P values of less or equal to 0.05 were considered significant.

Results: Of 462 blood samples taken from febrile patients, 26.4% had Plasmodium infection. Among positive cases, 64.75 %, 32 % and 3.75% of malaria was caused by P. falciparum, P. vivax and both P. falciparum and P. vivax infections respectively. Malaria incidence was found to be 0.343 %. No significant difference in incidence of malaria was found by sex and age categories of study participants (P>0.05). Incidence of malaria was significantly lower in urban kebeles compared to rural kebeles (COR= 0.359 and significantly associated with presence of stagnant water nearby living house (AOR=186.3, P=0.000), utilization of bed net (≥0.08, P=0.000), and IRS (AOR=0.056, P=0.03).The overall malaria incidence was 3.43 per 1000 population at risk of the disease during the study period.Whereas, the six years retrospective data showed decrease in malaria prevalence trend from 2014 - 2018 as compared to 2013.

Conclusion: Incidence of malaria was 3.43 per 1000 population at risk of the disease during the study period and was lower than recent incidence of malaria reported from Ethiopia. The six years retrospective data showed decrease in malaria prevalence trend from 2014 - 2018 as compared to 2013.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drug Recovery: Effect of Astemizole - Methylene Blue Combination Therapy against Plasmodium Strains in vitro

Joyce Nyirongo, Lucy Kamau, Jemimah Simbauni, Victor Mwangi, Esther Kagasi, Faith Onditi, Hastings Ozwara

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 9-17

Plasmodium species are protozoa from the Apicomplexa phylum which cause malaria. In the tropics and sub-tropics, approximately 3.3 billion people are threatened by this disease. Artemisinin Combination Therapy, has been reported to have a possible emergence of resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new drug formulations. Drug repurposing offers an appealing alternative to de novo drug development. Although astemizole and methylene blue have been reported to have anti-malarial properties, their efficacy when used in combination has not been studied. Five concentrations ranging from 7.81 µg/ml to 125 µg/ml were combined in various ratios and assessed against two Plasmodium strains in vitro. Parasite load (per µl of blood) was determined by microscopy. The results were represented as mean ± standard error. ANOVA analysis was used to determine differences in the treatment groups at p<0.05. Antiplasmodial activity was observed in all drugs that were cultured with P. falciparum chloroquine sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine resistant (W2) strains. Strain dependent differences were observed in the efficacy scores of the tested drugs.  Astemizole-methylene blue combinations of ratios 1:1, 3:1 and 1:3 interacted antagonistically. The least antagonistic interactions were 3:1 and 1:3 ratios at 31.25 µg/ml against the Plasmodium strains (FIC of 2.2 and 2.6 respectively). Astemizole antagonized methylene blue in the combinations. This study provided information on the importance of astemizole-methylene blue combination therapy against malaria and emphasized on the relevance of drug repurposing in malaria. This study shows that the drugs work better as monotherapies and that combinations in these ratios have insignificant antiplasmodial activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne Species) on Waterleaf (Talinum triangulare) in Three Locations in University of Calabar, Nigeria

Daniel Offiong Etim, Eleng, Ituna Emini, Bassey, Rosemary Anietie, Igwe, Chidimma Blessing

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 18-26

Aim: A comprehensive survey of root-knot nematodes was conducted in three locations (Unical farm, Biological Science and Botanical Garden) between June, 2018 to August, 2018 to determine the intensity of Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne hapla on the three locations of University of Calabar, Nigeria.

Methodology: A randomized sampling pattern was used during sampling, were a total of 60 samples (30 infected roots and 30 infected soil) samples were collected from the three major locations. In each location, 10 sampling points were selected randomly. Data were collected on Number of galls per root system, Gall index (G.I), Nematode density in soil and Number of nematode per plant. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics of chi-square.

Results: The prevalence of Root-knot nematodes was recorded with varying degree in all locations. The highest prevalence of Root-knot nematodes (M. incognita) 62.25% with (G.I = 4.00) was recorded from Botanical garden followed by 39.12% with (G.I = 4.00) in Biological Science block compared to Unical farm which recorded minimum prevalence of 15.41% with (G.I = 3.00). The result of the survey obtained showed that (M. incognita and M. hapla are prevalence in all the three locations. However, Unical farm had the least Root-knot infection of (M. hapla) compare to (M. incognita).

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the composition of nematode communities (plant-parasitic and free-living) may be used as bio indicators of soil health or condition. This further suggests that magnitude of nematode problem needs serious consideration to tackle by the use of useful nematode management strategies. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Routes of Administration and Efficacy of Monovalent and Bivalent Filarial Vaccine Candidates; BmALT-2 and WbGST

Mohini Nakhale, Ravi Shankar Yadav, Udaikumar Padigel, Kalyan Goswami, Satish Kumar

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 27-37

Aims: To evaluate immunoprophylactic adequacy of monovalent and bivalent filarial vaccine candidates; BmALT-2 and WbGST through different routes of immunization viz., intramuscular (i.m.), intraperitoneal (i.p.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) way.

Study Design:  In vivo and in vitro experimental studies using rodent model of filariasis.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry and J B Tropical Disease Research Centre, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Maharashtra, India, between June 2016 and July 2017.

Methodology: Male Mastomys (n=5-7/group) of 6-8 weeks age were immunized with 25 µg/dose of rBmALT-2, rWbGST, or rBmALT-2+rWbGST per animal along with alum as adjuvant through either of i.m., i.p. or s.c. routes. The control groups of mice received alum only. The protective immunity elicited in the animals was checked by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and micropore cytotoxicity assay. The splenocytes proliferation and cytokine profile were performed for the appraisal of cellular immune response.

Results: Our results demonstrated that immunization through i.m. route is more effective as compared to i.p. or s.c. routes and comparatively monovalent rBmALT-2 induces better protection as compared to monovalent rWbGST or bivalent dose consisting of rBmALT-2+rWbGST. Mastomys immunized through i.m. route with rBmALT-2 alone could induce 77.50% in vitro and 73.28% in vivo cytotoxicity (P<0.05) against Brugia malayi infective larvae (L3), whereas, rWbGST alone and rBmALT-2+rWbGST combined could induce 65% and 68% in vitro and 61% and 65% in vivo cytotoxicity (P<0.05), respectively. Our serological analysis showed that Mastomys immunized i.m. with rBmALT-2 or rWbGST or rBmALT-2+rWbGST induced IgG1, IgG2a and IgG3 antibody response, significantly higher than control groups. The protective effect was found to be associated with a predominantly increased level of IFN-γ and IL-4 in response to rBmALT-2.

Conclusion: Intramuscular route is the most effective way of administration of vaccine for better prophylactic response in filariasis. Additionally, co-administration of monovalent vaccine seems to interfere with the prophylactic effect of monovalent rBmALT-2 and rWbGST vaccines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Determining Factors of Urinary Schistosomiasis among Primary School Pupils in North Central Nigeria

H. I. Mohammed, I. Yahaya, S. B. Buhari

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 38-45

Aims: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and analyze risk factors for urinary schistosomiasis among primary school pupils in North Central Nigeria.

Study Design: The study was a cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Keffi, Nasarawa State, between March and June 2019.

Methodology: 300 urine samples (100 from each of the 3 selected primary schools) were collected from the pupils and information about them were obtained by structured questionnaires. The eggs of S. haematobium were microscopically detected from the samples using standard filtration technique. Data collected were analyzed using Smith’s Statistical Package (version 2.8, California, USA) and P value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Out of the 300 pupils screened, 36(12.0%) were positive for urinary schistosomiasis. Ahmadu Maikwato primary school had the highest prevalence (61.1%) followed by Nurudeen (27.8%) and Model Science (11.1%) primary schools. In relation to socio-demographics, the rate of the infection was higher among pupils aged ≥16 years (28.6%), males (15.9%), in rural areas (12.9%), from polygamous family (16.7%) and whose parents were farmers (18.8%). Location of the pupils was found to be associated with the rate of the infection (P=0.02). However, all other risk factors considered in this study were not significantly associated with the parasitic infection (P>0.05).

Conclusion: This study indicates the presence of urinary schistosomiasis in Central Nigeria and therefore, intensified control efforts are recommended towards the elimination goal by 2025.