Open Access Original Research Article

Search for Plasmodium Trophozoites in Volunteer Blood Donors at the Djougou Blood Transfusion Station

Aïkou Nicolas, Oubri Bassa Gbati, Rock Allister. Lapo, Ahoyo. Angèle Théodora, Cyriaque Degbey, Aïkou Nadine Lucrèce. Mirèze, Aïkou Arielle Nadège Emérentienne, Lydie Zannou, Ibrahim Alkoare, Edorh Patrick

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-7

Aims: Malaria is a real public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa; more than 300 million new cases and about two million deaths occur each year. Blood transfusion is a potential route of Plasmodium transmission, but there is still no consensus on measures to prevent post-transfusion malaria in endemic areas. In order to determine the prevalence rate of asymptomatic Plasmodium carriers among voluntary blood donors and to prove the risk of transfusion malaria.

Patients and Methods: we conducted a study from 29 March 2018 to 31 May 2018 in the laboratory of the Centre de Santé de la Commune (CSC) in Djougou, which houses a Blood Transfusion Station (BTS) and handled a total of 337 blood samples collected. Thick drop (TG), blood smear (FS) and microscopy were the methods used to enhance our results.

Results: At the end of the work, out of 337 cases studied, we obtained 58 positive cases of Plasmodium trophozoites, i.e. 17.21% and 279 negative cases, i.e. 82.79%. The positivity is higher in subjects with a body temperature between 36° C and 37.4°C, i.e. 56.89%, and therefore considered to be asymptomatic carriers.

Conclusion: Based on these facts, it is advisable to establish a system for the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium carriers among blood donors and to eliminate malaria after a blood transfusion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Age Groups and Haemoglobin Genotypes Influence Malaria Occurrence among Patients in Sokoto Specialist Hospital, Sokoto State, Nigeria

S. Y. Lema, A. Kabiru, M. A. Yahaya, A. S. Fana

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 8-16

A study on the occurrence of malaria among patients of different sexes, age groups and haemoglobin genotypes was conducted among 440 patients reported in Sokoto Specialist Hospital during the period of May to December, 2019. Blood samples were collected from each of the subjects with their consent, and then, thick and thin blood films were prepared and stained. Results showed that 304/440 (69.09%) patients were positive for malaria, with no significant difference between males 150/210 (71.43%) and females 154/230 (66.96%). But a positive correlation (P<0.05) in malaria infection was observed among different age groups; age group 0-5 years (76.08%) showed highest prevalence, while age group >45 years (51.85%) had the lowest prevalence. Subjects with haemoglobin genotype AA were found to be significantly more (P<0.05) susceptible to malaria (80.13%) compared to AS (51.16%) and SS (23.81%) genotypes. To conclude, the study revealed a high prevalence of malarial infection in the study area. The results of the study would help for public education and develop strategies to prevent and control malaria in the region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitosis in the Pediatrics Department at the Hospital of Zone Saint Jean De Dieu De Tanguieta (Hz Sjdt) Atacora (Republic of Benin, West Africa)

Aïkou Nicolas, Olounlade Pascal, Cyriaque Degbey, Ahoyo A. Theodora, Lydie Zannou, Gnangle B. Rosen, Oubri Bassa Gbati, L. M. Aïkou Nadine, N. E. Arielle Aikou Arielle

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 17-25

Aims: The general objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in children consulting in pediatrics at the Saint Jean de Dieu Hospital in Tanguiéta.

Patients and Methods: Parasitological examination of stool was performed in 121 children.

Results: Of the subjects examined, 92 were carriers of one or more parasites, for an overall infestation index of 76.03% (CI = 85.95%). Parasitism occurs from a young age (0 to 5 years) where it is 85.87% and then progressively decreases with age. The intestinal parasites encountered were in decreasing order of frequency: Giardia lamblia (39.42%), Entamoeba histolytica (25.96%), Entamoeba coli (11.54%), Trichomonas intestinalis (10.58%), Hookworm (4.81%), Strongyloides stercoralis and Hymenolepis nana (2.88%), Schistosoma mansoni(1.92%).

Conclusion: In view of these results, it appears necessary to promote measures to reduce parasitism by intestinal protozoa and to prevent the spread of helminthiases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dual Infection of HIV and Malaria among HIV-Infected Individuals in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Iheanyi O. Okonko, Kelechi Onwubuche, Tochi I. Cookey, Obakpororo E. Agbagwa, Ifeyinwa Nwogo Chijioke-Nwauche

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 26-31

Aim: Malaria and HIV, two of the world’s most deadly diseases are wild spread, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was carried out to detect circulating malaria P. falciparum among HIV-infected individuals in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Study Design:  Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between August 2012 and July 2015.

Methods: A total of 100 blood samples confirmed to be HIV positive were collected and subjected to detection of circulating P. falciparum malaria using malaria P. falciparum Rapid test devices and ELISA kit (Dia. Pro) following the respective manufacturer's instructions.

Results: Overall prevalence of P. falciparum was 5.0%. The result showed a higher HIV and malaria co-infection among age groups 20-24 years indicating that a higher portion of subjects with malaria parasitemia was from this age groups (5.7%) compared to other age groups (16-19 years, 5.0% and 25 years & above, 3.5%). Sex-specific co-infection indicated that prevalence of HIV/malaria co-infection was only present among females (11.9%).

Conclusion: This study further confirms the presence of HIV and malaria co-infection among the population studied. Routine screening of malaria among HIV-positive patients is therefore advocated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Host Density on the Performance of the Bracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Parasitizing Indian Meal Moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Md. Forhad Hossain, Md. Mahbub Hasan, Mst. Raosonara Khatun

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 32-41

The parasitoid species Bracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an important beneficial insect as it can be used as a biological control agent. On the other hand, the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a serious pest of stored and processed food products. The present work was conducted to investigate the impact of host density on the performance of the parasitoid and its next progeny for its mass rearing. The investigation indicates that there is no significant difference among the percentages of parasitized host larvae due to different host densities. However, the number of parasitoid pupae (P=.05), total number of adult emerged (P<.001), F1 larval periods (P<.001), F1 pupal period (P<.001), F1 total developmental period (P<.001), longevities (P=.05) differed significantly due to different host densities. Moreover, the experiment also showed that there are significant differences among the F2 larval periods (P<.001), total developmental period (P<.001), longevity (P=.05) but not among the number of F2 adult progeny, number of parasitized host larvae by F1 and number of F2 pupae. The results also showed no significant difference among the sex ratios of the F1 generation, F2 generation and size of parasitoid due to different host densities.