Open Access Original Research Article

Interest of the Kato Method in the Diagnosis and Counting of Helminth Eggs

Aïkou Nicolas, Gbati Oubri Bassa, Degbey Cyriaque, Coulibaly Amadou Founzegue, Gnangle B. Rosen, Assogba Jacques Kevin, Adjaho Lidwine, Kangni Marie Louis Aballo

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-5

This study investigated the value of the KATO method in the diagnosis and enumeration of helminth eggs in HZ-AC/SA. Helminthiases are widespread disease worldwide and are among the most common conditions constituting a public health problem. It is a fact that most biomedical laboratories limit themselves to direct examination in the search for these parasites. This study lasted three months from May to August 2020 and took place at Abomey-Calavi/Sô-Ava Area Hospital Laboratory. For this purpose 106 stool samples collected from patients received at the laboratory of Abomey-Calavi zone hospital and Zinvié health center for coprological diagnosis were analyzed. At the end of the tests, 06.61% of the stools were positive. Ascariasis came first with 85.71% followed by hookworm with 14.29%. The study showed that only children are infested and the diagnosed parasites are only found by the KATO method. This method is effective in the diagnosis and counting of helminth eggs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital (Mmsh), Kano, Kano State

Lynn Maori, Hussaini Suleiman Salihu, Japhet J. Kalang, Maikudi Haruna, R. C. Mamtara, Emmanuel Peters, Abdulsalam Yakubu, Usman Muhammed

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 6-14

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood glucose, either because the body does not produce enough insulin or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. Defects in immune system are associated with different parasitic infection. Intestinal parasitic infection (IPI) is still a major health problem in different regions of the world, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. The aim of this study is to determine intestinal parasitic infections among diabetes mellitus patients attending Murtala Muhammad specialist hospital (MMSH), Kano.

Materials and Methods: The study is a comparative case control study and was carried out at Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital. A total of 184 participants were recruited. 138 diabetic patients and 46 non-diabetic individuals (control group) with data on socio-demographic characteristics collected from both groups. The participants were instructed on how to collect the sample. The samples were processed macroscopically and microscopically by direct wet preparation and formalin-ether concentration technique. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistical model in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 23).

Results: Infection with S. stercoralis (29.7%), hookworm (13.0%), E. histolytica (5.1%) and mixed infection with “hookworm and S. stercoralis“ and “E. histolytica and hookworm” were found to be in 2 (1.5%) each were found in the case group, this is summed up to a total of 50.8%, while in the control group, E. histolytica (6.5%) and G. lamblia (2.2%) were found giving a total of 8.7%. Out of the 50.8% in the case group, 51.4% and 48.6% were male and female respectively. In this study, it was concluded that DM patients are at high risk of infection with intestinal parasites than normal population p=0.512 (50.8 and 8.7).

Conclusion: This investigation reveals that male participants were found to be more infected with intestinal parasites than females which could be as a result of Life style. Vegetable wash, life modification, walking barefooted source of water, and animal rearing did not significantly affect the prevalence of IPIs in DM patients p=0.512. It was concluded that DM patients are at higher risk of infection with intestinal parasites than normal population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites among off Campus and Hostel Students of the Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria

M. O. Iboyi, C. O. Ali, B. O. David, E. O. Otakpa

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 15-23

Aim: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among students of the Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State.

Study Design: The study targeted a total of 200 (73 off campus and 127 hostel) students of the University of Agriculture Makurdi.

Place and Duration of the Study: University of Agriculture Makurdi, from March 2018 to August 2018.

Methodology: 200 stool samples were collected from students ranging in age from 15-35 years. Sample processing was done using formal ether sedimentation technique while structured questionnaire was used to gather other relevant data. Data was analyzed using Chi-square.

Results: An overall prevalence of 53(26.5%) was recorded. Five species of gastro intestinal parasites were identified of which three were helminthes: Ascaris lumbricoides 8.5%, Trichuris trichuria 5% and Hook worm 1.5% while the other two are protozoan: Entamoeba histolytica 6% and Giardia lamblia 2%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite although other  parasites such as strongloides stercolaris, Entamoeba coli, Chilomastix mesnili and Vampirolepis nana were found aswell (P>0.05). Students in the age group 20-25 years were mostly infected while those from 31 years and above had no infection (P>0.05). High prevalence was recorded in students in hostel (28.3%) than those in off campus (23.3%) and among male students (29.2%) than in females (25.19%) (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between persons with single parasitism (32.6%) and poly-parasitism (20.5%) as well as in infection from different sources of drinking water (P>0.05). infection based on toilet type also showed no significant difference (P>0.05). 31.4% of infected subjects had symptoms of diarrhea while 25.3% had no diarrhea symptoms (P>0.05).

Conclusion: although the prevalence observed in this study is relatively low, students in the hostel account for most of the infection. Improved sanitation should be encouraged among students especially those in hostel.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Malaria Infection among Pregnant Women Attending Specialist Hospital Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Kefas Hellamada Kwala, Aminu Innocent Asika, Tagotikai Adiel

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 24-31

Malaria in pregnancy is a public health problem with serious negative impact on the mother and the foetus. There were 228 million cases of malaria and 405,000 deaths worldwide according to the World Health Organization (WHO) world malaria report for 2018. It is caused by a parasite of genus Plasmodium, transmitted to humans by a bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. Thus, the present study aims at determining the prevalence of malaria infection among pregnant women attending Specialist Hospital Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. A study was conducted through random anonymous testing of volunteers from the month of July to September 2019, at antenatal care unit, Specialist Hospital Yola after ethical clearance was obtained. Three hundred and thirteen participants were examined for the presence of malaria parasite using standard method, microscopy (Giemsa stained) thick and thin blood smears. Structured questionnaires were also administered to the women from whom blood samples were collected. Prevalence was characterized based on age group, educational level, occupation and gestational age of the participants. Overall prevalence showed that 36.74% of the pregnant women were infected with malaria. Participants between age groups; 26-35 years old had the highest prevalence of 58.26%. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between the prevalence of malaria and age group of the participants. In relation to/As regards the Educational level, participants with secondary education had the highest prevalence of malaria infection with 56.52%. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between the prevalence of malaria and educational level of the participants. Regards occupation of the participants, women who were Unemployed recorded the highest prevalence of malaria (27.83%). There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between the prevalence of malaria and occupation of the participants. Based on gestational age of the participants, subjects that were in their second trimester recorded the highest prevalence of malaria with 55.65%. There was a statistically significant difference (P< 0.05) between the prevalence of malaria and gestational age of the participants examined. This study has revealed the prevalence of malaria infection among pregnant women; hence the need for health education in malaria control and prevention especially during pregnancy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiology of Malaria in Nise Community, Awka South Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria

Ifebunandu Nnatuanya, Philip Ilozumba, Chidiogo Nwadike, Chinaza Uzoegbo

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 32-44

Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of malaria in the area with reference to location, sex and age; mosquito vectors and the Plasmodium specie responsible for the transmission of malaria in the area, as well as the reliability of two diagnostic methods: rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and microscopy for determining malaria parasitemia.

Materials and Methods: The study design was a community-based descriptive, quantitative, cross-sectional household survey, while the data collected were statistically analyzed using chi-square (x2) test. Three hundred (300) individuals (124 males and 176 females) were examined for malaria parasitaemia using standard parasitological and haematological procedures.

Results: Overall prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was 28.33%, but prevalence varied with location, sex and age. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was higher in Isiakpu (33.82%) and lowest in Umuazu (24.44%), but was not statistically significant (X2 =0.665; P>0.05). Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was significantly higher in females (34.09%) than in males (20.16%) (X2 = 0.008; P<0.05). Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was 43.33% in 41-50 years and 15.79% in 21-30 years age group. Difference in prevalence among the age groups was not significant (X2 = 0.181, P>0.05). Prevalence of malaria was significantly higher with microscopy (28.33%) than in RDT (12.67%) (X2 = 0.000, P<0.05). Microscopy method was more reliable than RDT as revealed in this study. Plasmodium falciparum was the only species of Plasmodium identified in the study area, while Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (12 species collected) was the commonest mosquito species identified as responsible for transmission of malaria in the community. Other non-malaria vectors encountered during mosquito sampling include: Aedes aegypti (1) and Culex quinquefasciatus (15)

Conclusions: Study revealed that Nise is mesoendemic for malaria. Use of Long Lasting Insecticidal Treated Nets (LLITNs), campaign on Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) by the government, at least every two years to reduce the vector population, as well as the Use of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs) as the first drug of choice should be sustained.