Open Access Short Research Article

Phylogeographical Analysis and Visualization of Data of Trypanosoma Isolates from Different Foci in Nigeria Using Microreact and Phandango (2003 – 2018)

Akinseye Olanrewaju Roland, I. Gbadamosi Folawiyo, Ale Ebenezer Morayo, Ojomo L. Joan, Adelabu Mustapha, Rolayo Emmanuel, Olaleye Olusola

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 31-39

Introduction: A combination of phylogenetic tree of trypanosome isolates and the geographical information of the epidemiologic foci can acquaint us with the occurrences of African trypanosomiasis outbreak necessitous for educating the spatial distribution of the parasites, vectors and drawing inferences for planning strategic control programs. Microreact and Phandango are free online tools that enables the visual representation and study of genomic epidemiology of infectious diseases. This study elicits the phylogenetic data of trypanosome isolates and the specific host along with geographical information

Methods: A total of 46 isolates. Protein sequence data of trypanosomes isolated in Nigeria between 2003 and 2018 were extracted from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. Multiple sequence alignment and tree construction were carried out on sequence data files and Newick output was downloaded. Metadata .csv files were prepared accordingly and loaded for visualization in microreact and phandango.

Results: The preponderance of Glossina palpalis was reported in old Oyo National Park and they were majorly incriminated in the transmission of Trypanosoma gravi in Glossina palpalis. Trypanosoma theileri was isolated from the midgut of Glossina morsitan reported to be found in Kainji Lake National Park only. Trypanosoma congolense was reportedly isolated from cattle at Zaria, Glossina morsitans at Kainji Lake National Park, Glossina tachinoid at old Oyo National Park at Oyo and, Glossina palpalis at Yankari Game Reserve Bauchi. Trypanosoma brucei brucei was isolated from a rat in April 2018 at Federe and Vom, Plateau state. In Federe and Vom, Trypanosoma brucei brucei was found in rat in April 2018 while Trypanosoma evansi was obtained from animal in Vom December 2008. In Bida and Tsuaa, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense was isolated from unidentified animals (probably cattles) in October 2009. The analyses also revealed 7 protein sequence which includes 7 protein sequenced including cathepsin L-like protein (CPL) and glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-GAPDH) from Tryapanosoma vivi and Trypanosoma congolense, glycoprotein (GP) from  Trypanosoma brucei gambiense; trans-sialidase (TSs) from Trypanosoma evansi; phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and hexokinase 1 (HK1) from Trypanosoma brucei brucei; and also glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-GAPDH) from Trypanosoma theileri.

Conclusion: The study generated a concise visual representation and trajectory of trypanosome isolates in Nigeria along with their genetic metadata and geographic location on a phylogenetic tree which will serve as a reference for information on trypanosomiasis outbreaks in Nigeria, provide blue prints for future outbreak predictions and guide decision-making on strategic control programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Human Parasites Associated with Common Edible Vegetables Sold in Rural Markets in the Niger Delta Region

Goodhead Dakoru Arthur, Bayo-Olajide Testimonies Chikanka

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-7

A study on evaluation of human intestinal parasite associated with edible vegetables commonly consumed in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, was carried out to determine parasitic contamination of these daily consumed items. The samples included waterleaf, pumpkin leaf, scent leaf, cucumber, and okazi leaf, sold in the rural markets in Akabuka, Ogbogu, Omoku, Oboburu, and Obirikom, all in Ogba-Egbema Ndoni LGA of the Niger Delta. A total of 250 fresh vegetable samples were purchased and examined for the presence of human intestinal parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongloides stercoralis, two primary species of Hookworm namely Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale, and Entamoeba histolytica, using centrifugal floatation and microscopy methods. Results of the findings reveal that, among the vegetable samples examined, Waterleaf (Talium triangulare) had higher contamination of 25.0%, followed by Pumpkin leaf (Telfaria occidentalis) 11.2%, and the least contamination was observed in Okazi leaf (Gnetum africanum). The most frequently observed parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides 16(20.2%) and Entamoeba histolytica 6(14.2%), while the least parasites prevalence was recorded with Trichuris trichiura 1(3.1%). The findings of this study showed that vegetables sold in the markets could be potential sources for the transmission of human intestinal infections, due to their cultivation and storage processes, corroborating findings of various studies in Nigeria that human intestinal parasites cause common infections worldwide and are observed to be contacted through their infective eggs and larvae in the soil. There is need for sensitization of consumers on thorough washing and observation of proper hygiene to prevent the public health hazards associated with eating these nutritious vegetables.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parasite Contamination of Common Fruits and Vegetables from Selected Markets in Awka-North and Awka-South Local Government Areas, Anambra State, Nigeria

Pauline Ukamaka Umeanaeto, Queenette Eberechukwu Chukwuma, Goodness Nkiru Itemba, Kindness Chidi Irikannu, Joseph Uche Anumba, Chukwudinma Chigozie Okoli, Justina Chimezie Akulue

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 8-15

Background: The practice of eating raw fruits and vegetables has led to infection with various parasitic diseases. Some flies species has been reported as mechanical transmitters of parasites and so contribute to the spread of the disease-causing organisms on fruits and vegetables. Edible vegetables and fruits sold in selected markets in Awka-North and Awka-South LGAs, Anambra State, Nigeria were examined for parasites between April and August 2018.

Materials and Methods: Three different fruits (Garden egg: Solanium macrocarpon, Local Pear: Dacryodes edulis and Orange: Citrus sinensis) and four different vegetables (Spinach: Amaranthus cruentus, Fluted pumpkin: Telfairia occidentalis, Scent leaf: Ocimum grattissumum, Garden egg leaf: Solanium macrocarpon) were collected. One hundred grams (100g) of each sample was washed separately in beakers containing 100 ml of normal saline. The resulting suspension was sieved to remove debris. Each filtrate was then transferred to a clean labelled specimen bottle and was examined for parasites using floatation and sedimentation techniques.

Results: Of 303 vegetables and fruits samples examined, 167(55.1%) were contaminated [Fruits: 58/135=41.4%; Vegetables: 109/168=64.9%]. Of 90 fruits and 108 vegetables examined in Awka-North markets, 41(45.6%) and 83(76.9%) were contaminated respectively. Of 45 fruits and 60 vegetables examined in Awka-South markets, 17(37.8%) and 26(43.3%) were contaminated respectively. There was higher contamination of fruits and vegetables in Awka-North, 124(62.6%) than Awka-South, 43(41.0%). The overall prevalence was statistically significant (p < 0.05) using χ2. Orange 22(16.3%) was the highest contaminated fruit while Fluted pumpkin 29(17.2%) was the highest contaminated vegetable although not significant (p > 0.05). Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasite recovered on Fruits, 22(16.3%) and vegetables, 41(24.4%).

Conclusion: This investigation has revealed that some fruits and vegetables in the study areas were contaminated with parasites. Therefore, fruits and vegetables should be properly washed and vegetables cooked before consumption to avoid parasite transmission.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Malaria in Farming Communities of Lau Local Government Area of Taraba State Nigeria

T. Adiel, G. Chessed, J. H. Buduwara, R. Sami, M. L. Tafem

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 16-23

Malaria poses a major public health problem that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in impoverished and poor sanitary settings. Malaria, a vector-borne disease, transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito is an endemic disease. Farmers are often known to live in remote locations while a majority of them reside in farm settlements where there are few or absence of social amenities. The low literacy and poor income from their produce have continually subjected them to poor living conditions. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared using standard parasitological procedures, other information about the farmers were obtained using a structured questionnaire. The study was aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices about malaria and intestinal parasites in farming communities of Lau Local Government. A total of 258 farmers participated in the study. One hundred and forty-four (55.8%) were males while 114 (44.2%) were females. From the results, 116 (45.0%) of the participants were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Among those who were positive for malaria, 71 (61.2%) were males, while 45 (38.8%) were females. The 10–25-year-old age group had the highest prevalence of malaria with 46 (63.9%) cases. Also, there is no significant association found between the prevalence of malaria parasites and age (p=0.318). One hundred and seventy (65.9%) farmers heard about malaria. When seeking treatment, 154 (59.7%) of the respondents prefer going to the hospital or clinic. Misconceptions about the malaria parasite still exist. There is still a need for a proper awareness program among farmers, which would help to lessen the burden of these parasitic infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Intensity of Parasites of Anurans in Selected Wetlands of Kogi State, North Central, Nigeria

G. U. Amana, J. C. Ozougwu, I. C. Okoye, C. A. Imakwu, O. P. Okeke, I. Nwachukwu, J. E. Ekeleme, J. Idakwo, J. C. Ogbodo

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 24-30

Parasites infect nearly every species of animals, nevertheless the majority are inadequately studied except they have proven economic, medical or conservation significance. The role of parasites in the decline of anuran population is not clearly understood, therefore this study is aimed to assess the prevalence and intensity of parasites of Anurans in selected wetlands of Kogi State, North central, Nigeria. The study was conducted in Abu’ja wetland in Dekina Local Government area, and Egwubi seasonal wetland in Ejule, Ofu Local Government area of Kogi State. Anuran species found in both wetlands included Amietophrymus regularis, A. maculatus and Hoplobatracchus occipitalis. Out of the 854 anurans collected, 25 anurans were infected by ectoparasites, 37 anurans by haemoparasites and 87 anurans by gut parasites at Abu’ja station. Also 13 anurans were infected by ectoparasites, 14 anurans by haemoparasites and 56 anurans by gut parasites at Egwubi station. The ectoparasites identified in anurans of both wetlands were Leech (Hirudo medicinalis) and ticks. Haemoparasites included Folleyeloides mirofilaria, Trypanosome spp, and Haemoigregarina spp. The cestode, Baerietta jaegerskioidi, was found in the gut of Hoplobatracchus occipitalis from Egwubi wetland. Others were nematodes Ampliceacum africanum, Cosmocercer onata, and Physaloptera spp common to the three species of anurans from both wetlands. This study has shown the parasites of anurans from Kogi State, North Central, Nigeria. It also showed the biodiversity of anurans in the study area proving its relative abundance. Effort should be made to protect these anuran species from these parasites as they could be of public health concern if transmitted to humans as they have very good ecological relevance.