Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxic, In vitro and In vivo Antimalarial Activities of Hippocratea Africana

Jude E. Okokon, Paschal Amaechi, John A. Udobang, Hemant Kumar Bankhede

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 1-14

Aims: Analysis of cytotoxic effect, and correlation of in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activities of the root extract and fractions of H. africana so as to identify the active fraction.

Methodology: The extract (200, 400, 600 mg/kg) and fractions (400 m/kg) were evaluated in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei using suppressive, prophylactic and curative models. In vivo antimalarial activity of the root extract and fractions against chloroquine-sensitive strain (Pf 3D7) and chloroquine-resistant strain (Pf INDO) of Plasmodium falciparum was also evaluated using SYBR Green Invitrogen based method. Chloroquine (CQ) and pyrimethamine were the standard drugs used.

Results: The root extract produced a significant (P=.05) dose-dependent decrease in parasitaemia of the infected mice treated in suppressive, prophylactic and curative tests. Moreover, the survival time of the animals increased. All the fractions exerted a significant (P=.05) activity, with the ethyl acetate fraction being the most active. The root extract and fractions showed a considerable activity against both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum with ethyl acetate fraction showing the highest activity.

Conclusion: The results proved that root extract and fractions possess antimalarial and antiplasmodial activities justifying its ethnomedical usage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation of Parasitic and Fungal Organisms Associated with Leachates in Some Selected Dumpsites in Awka Metropolis, Anambra State

K. C. Mbelede, I. M. Ikeh, B. U. Ononye

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 15-21

Leachate is a discharge interface from leaching, as of dissolvable organic constituents from pollutants and landfill by sloping downward exude dregs water. They are formed when precipitation enters wastes in dumpsites. This study isolated the parasitic and fungal organisms associated with leachates in some selected dumpsites in Awka, Anambra State. A total of 200 leachate samples were collected. Fifty (50) samples were collected from Ifite (along Ifite road), 50 samples from Eke-Awka (market), while 50 samples were collected in Amaenyi (along Nkwo Amaenyi road). The method used for conducting the experiment was centrifugation and microscopy. Fungi were also cultured during the experiment. The result of the study revealed that out of 200 leachate samples examined, a total of 200(100%) were infested with parasites. A total of five species of parasites were obtained on examination of the leachates which include Giardia lamblia, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba coli. G. lamblia had the highest abundance of 37(71.15%) followed by S. stercoralis 6(11.54%) while D. dendriticum, E. histolytica and E. coli had the least prevalence of 3(5.77) each. However, there was no significant difference between the parasite species found in leachates in the study area (P>0.05). The study also revealed that Eke-Awka had the highest parasite abundance of 18(34.62%) followed by Amaenyi which had 13(25.00%) and then Ifite which had 11(21.15%). However, there was no significant difference in the abundance of parasites species found in leachates in the location of the dumpsites (P>0.05). Fungi species isolated during this study were Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Saccharomyces spp, Candida spp, Penicillium spp, Fusarium spp, and Mucor spp. The presence of these parasitic and fungal organisms in the environment  poses a great threat to human health hence waste managers should take proper precautions while handling wastes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parasites Harbored by Synanthropic Flies in Urban and Rural Areas of Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria

Obianuju Nwadiogo Mbakwe, Miriam Okwudili Iwueze, Kindness Chidi Irikannu, Chikodili Obiajulu Aniefuna

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 22-28

Background: Synanthropic flies are of public health importance due to their role as mechanical transmitters of parasites. The link between human pathogens and fly-transmission is because adult flies feed and breed on refuse dump, human excrement, and other decaying materials and making contact with humans and their livestock.

Aim: The study was to investigate the parasites species associated with synanthropic flies in selected urban and rural areas of Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria.

Study Design: The study was a field survey of synanthropic flies and laboratory-based isolation of parasites associated with the flies.

Duration: The study was conducted between October-December, 2019 (Dry season) and May-July, 2020 (Rainy season).

Materials and Methods: Four (4) sweep nets were used for collection of flies. Parasites were identified in the laboratory using sedimentation techniques.

Results: A total of 181(100%) parasites comprising six species were isolated from the flies. They were; Entamoeba histolytica 18(9.94%), Ascaris lumbricoides 76(41.99%), Taenia species 27(14.92%), Giardia lamblia 19(10.50%), hookworm 18(9.94%) and Trichuris trichiura 23(12.70%). The difference in the prevalence of the parasites species was significant (p=0.005, p < 0.05). Of the 181(100%) parasites, 86(47.51%) were isolated from flies from refuse dumps in abattoir, 50(27.62%) from refuse dumps in food stuff market while 45(24.86%) were from refuse dumps around homes. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasites across the different refuse dumps (p = 0.632, p > 0.05). A total of 40(22.10%) parasites were isolated from the bodies of flies collected in Nnewi, 45 (24.86%) from Awkuzu, 58(32.04%) from Onitsha, and 38(21.00%) from flies collected in Awka-Etiti. There was no significant different in the prevalence of parasites by communities (p = 0.372, p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Since synanthropic flies have been implicated as a mechanical career of parasites. Health education and environmental sanitation is recommended as a control measure.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Alpha Amylase and Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Hippocratea africana Root Extract and Fractions

Jude Efiom Okokon, John A. Udobang, Chinyere P. Chidiebere, Augustine I. Bassey

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 45-52

Aim: To study the in vivo alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitory activities of Hippocratea africana root extract and fractions.

Methods: The root extract (200, 400, 600 mg/kg) and fractions (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol, 400 mg/kg) of H. africana were evaluated in rats for inhibitory effect on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase enzymes using starch, sucrose and maltose as substrates. The substance used for reference was Acarbose.

Results: The effect of extract resulted in significant (P.˂.05) reduction in blood glucose levels of treated rats though non dose-dependently with the various substrates used. The ethyl acetate fraction exerted the highest inhibitory effect when starch was used as a substrate, while ethyl acetate followed by methanol were the most active fractions when maltose and sucrose were used as substrates.

Conclusion: The results suggest that the root extract and fractions of H. africana have the potentials to inhibit alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase in rats and thus reduce blood glucose levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Host Size on Biological Characteristics of Bracon hebetor Say Parasitizing Indian Meal Moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner

Md. Forhad Hossain, Md. Mahbub Hasan, Raosonara Khatun

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 53-58

The parasitoid Bracon hebetor has been successfully used as a biological control agent against some pyralid moths. The present study was conducted to know the impact of host size on the performance of Bracon hebetor to elevate its mass rearing technique. In this experiment, two different sizes of the host (Plodia interpunctella) larvae were infested by one pair of B. hebetor and some biological characteristics of this parasitoid were studied. This investigation showed no significant effect on parasitism rate, pupae number, adult emergence, longevity and developmental period (larval, pupal and total developmental period) due to different host sizes. On the contrary, the sex ratio (P<0.05) and body size (P<0.05) of parasitoids varied significantly with the host size. However further investigation should be focused on the walk-in field cage trials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Physicochemical Changes and Microbial load in Drinking Water within Keffi Town Before and After Storage

T. O. Bamidele, G. S. Haruna, S. A. Ogboga

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 59-67

The present study aimed at evaluating the physicochemical parameters and microbial load of drinking water in Keffi town, Nasarawa state, Nigeria and the effect of storing the water. Water samples were collected directory from the factories of selected vendors and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity (Tur), chloride ion (Cl-), alkalinity, sulphate ion (SO4-), nitrates (NO3-), phosphates (PO4-), total hardness (TH) and microbial counts following standard scientific procedures. The results were compared with WHO/NAFDAC recommended standards. Sachet water 1 (SW1), tap water (TW) and bottled water (BW1) had chloride values higher than the standards. TW, SW1, SW2, SW3, SW4, SW5 and SW6 had viable cell counts above the 100 cfu/ml standards recommended by WHO/NAFDAC with isolated organisms. By the 10th week, pH values decreased in all the samples, TDS and %DO2 increased in all the samples. Alkalinity increased in all the samples with decreased TH, while sulphates values increased in all the samples. Nitrates were not detected in all the samples. Bottled water had total coliform counts within the acceptable values. The results of this study revealed that Bottled water was of best quality for consumption and prolonged storage of all the water samples caused a decrease in PH, TH, %DO2, BOD and Phosphates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pathogenic Bacteria Found on Surfaces of Canned Drinks and Wines Being Sold In Retail Shops in Ondo state, Nigeria, Health Implications, Food Safety and Quality Assessment

O. T. Osuntokun, O. A. Thonda, E. O. Akele, L. O. Adedokun, S. A. Adedayo, O. A. Bello

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 68-94

The aim of this study is to determine the pathogenic bacteria, microbial properties, food safety and quality assessment of canned drinks and wines being sold in retail shops in Ondo state, Nigeria and their   health implications. Bacteria were isolated from canned drinks and Wine Lid, body and bottom surface being sold in retail shops. They were identified using conventional method of analysis. The antibiotic susceptibility (Antibiogram) tests were determined on isolates using disc diffusion method. After the inoculation of the selected parts (Lid, body and bottom surface), sixteen(16) Gram positive pathogenic bacteria were identified. Bacteria isolates includes Bacillus polymyxa (7), Lactobacillus casei, Microbacterium lacticum, Staphylococcus aureus, Cellulomon asbiazotae, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium sporogens, Staphylococcus pyogens, Bacillus cereus. In this study, Bacillus polymyxa were the most common organism isolated. Some of the Gram positive organisms were resistant to some selected antibiotics. Staphylococcus pyogens were resistant to Norfaxacin, Erythromycin, Gentamycin and Ampliclox. Bacillus polymyxa were resistant to Norfaxacin, Chloramphenicol, and Gentamycin. Lactobacillus casei were resistant to Norfaxacin, Ampliclox and Amoxil. Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer were used to determine the growth dynamic and death rate of the isolates, the addition of antibiotics to the organism at the 48th hour speed up the death rate of the organisms. The result of this study shows that canned drinks and wines top surfaces can harbor pathogenic bacteria, therefore people are encouraged to wash the top surfaces of canned drinks and wines before consumption, to minimize and eliminate the health threat of the isolated pathogenic bacteria in our canned drinks and wine surfaces, this research work will therefore encourage food safety and quality assessment of our canned drinks and wine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mapping of Lymphatic Filariasis by Observation of Elephantiasis in Enugu State, Southeastern Nigeria

L. N. Nweke, I. O. Onyali, M. O. Iwueze, K. C. Irikannu, A. K. Sallau

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 95-103

Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by filarial parasites can lead to complication like swollen legs with rough thickened skin, known as elephantiasis. A study of mapping of LF by observation of elephantiasis in five Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Enugu State.

Aim: The study was to determine the prevalence of elephantiasis according to gender, age and occupation and to develop map of LF prevalence in Enugu State, Southeastern Nigeria.

Study Design: The study was a cross-sectional survey of the studied population for elephantiasis. A total of 349 persons aged 15 years and above, participated in the study. The study was conducted between January and May, 2018 and the participants were selected through systemic sampling technique.

Materials and Methods: Physical examination of individuals was employed to determine elephantiasis. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used for mapping.

Results: A total of 4.9% (17) prevalence of elephantiasis was recorded. Females had highest prevalence, 8.3% (13) against 2.1% (4) in males. There was significant association between elephantiasis and gender (X2 = 7.158, df = 1, p = 0.007, (p < 0.05)). Age group 45 – 54 years had the highest prevalence of 12.3% (7) while no case was observed in age groups 15 – 24 years, 25 – 34 years and 35 – 44 years. There was significant association between elephantiasis and age (X2 = 13.934, df = 5, p = 0.016, (p < 0.05)). Artisans with a prevalence of 11.4% (4) had the highest prevalence, while no case was reported in students, civil servants and carpentry occupation groups. There was no significant association between elephantiasis and occupation (X2 = 4.917, df = 5, p = 0.426, p > 0.05)). Nkanu East (Onichagu) had the highest prevalence with 5 cases (9.1%) while Awgu (Ibite) had the least with 3 cases (3.0%).

Conclusion: People living with LF morbidity are in the study area. The State Ministry of Health and Partners should develop morbidity management activities that will alleviate the burden of elephantiasis.

Open Access Review Article

Onchocerciasis in America: Venezuela One Step Away from its Elimination

Alberto Piamo Morales, Carlos Botto Abella, Alma García Rojas

South Asian Journal of Parasitology, Page 29-44

Introduction: Onchocerciasis has been a threat to public health in the Americas for almost five centuries, affecting hundreds of thousands of people with the threat of severe dermatological conditions, visual impairment, and blindness. In Latin America, 13 foci of onchocerciasis were recognized, with 570,000 people at risk of infection by 2017.

Objective: To describe the progress of the onchocerciasis elimination programme for the Americas (OEPA) with emphasis on the experience of Venezuela.

Method: A literature review was developed, using databases: PubMed and Google Scholar, to identify articles published on the elimination process of onchocerciasis in America, finding 96 publications, including 14 documents from the World Health Organization and Pan American Health Organization.

Results: In the region of the Americas, the goal of eliminating onchocerciasis is close to happening, it has already been achieved in four of the six affected countries in the region: only Venezuela and Brazil continue to report transmission of the infection, in whose foci substantial progress has been made in interrupting transmission of the disease.

Conclusions: Eliminating onchocerciasis in the South Focus of Venezuela and Amazonas-Roraima of Brazil constitutes the last step of this strategy. Changes to this strategy to achieve this included; the integration of the community to the distribution of treatment, the strengthening of the local health infrastructure, the design and implementation of operations research at the local level, financial sustainability and effective promotion.